Classroom Transaction and Steps in Teaching English

Classroom Transaction and Steps in Teaching English, SCERT Hyderabad has issued guidelines on Classroom Transaction and Steps in Teaching English to teachers. Ultimate goal of teaching English: To help the learners think independently and use English creatively and spontaneously as needed in the real life situations.

Role of Grammar and Vocabulary: These are essential but cannot be treated as discrete and independent entities.  Grammatical awareness and vocabulary expansion takes place not by teaching these separately but through the entire classroom process; this is further strengthened by editing activities.

Pre reading

  1. Interact with the learners based on the trigger picture.
  2. Ask questions in additions to what has been given in TB.
  3. Use well-framed questions.
  4. Allow the learners to respond in mother tongue.
  5. Megaphone the children’s responses in English.
  6. Elicit and accept the divergent responses from the learners.
  7. Elicit relevant responses (words and sentences) and write on the BB/chart.
  8. Utter the word holistically but not letter by letter.
  9. Ask the learners to read the words and sentences from the BB / chart.


  1. Specify which part of the reading passage is to be read
  2. Ask the learners read individually.
  3. Give proper instructions such as the following.
    • Tick the sentences /words you are able to read.
    • Identify the characters/ location, events / dialogues in the story.
    • Give further support to low-proficient learners in the following manner.
  4. Interact with the low- proficient learners to generate a subtext.
  5. Write the sub text on BB / on chart / in the notebook of the learner.
  6. Ask the learners to associate the sub text with the reading text.
  7. Put the learners in groups for sharing their reading experience.
  8. Give proper instructions for sharing the reading experience.
  9. Monitor the group activity (i.e., check whether the instructions are being followed).
  10. Facilitate sharing of reading experience between the groups.
  11. Make use of a glossary. (The glossary given in the TB and developed by the teacher additionally)
  12. Pose some questions to check comprehension.
  13. Ask some analytical questions to extrapolate the text.
  14. Make use of a concept mapping activity.
  15. Read the text aloud with proper voice modulation.
  16. Give chance to the learners to read aloud.
  17. Give proper feedback while the learners are reading aloud.
  18. Invite feedback from other learners on loud reading.

Post reading

  1. The post-reading activities:
    • Identify a discourse and assign a task to construct it.
    • Write the targeted discourse on BB and ask children to copy it.
    • Write down the questions and answers.
  2. Follow the process for the construction of discourse individually.
    • Interact to make the context of the discourse (available from the reading passage).
    • Ask questions to help the learners get ideas such as events, characters, location, etc.
    • Ask questions to sensitize the learners on some features of the discourse.
    • Give support to low –proficient learners.
  3. Provide opportunity for individual presentation.
  4. Give feedback on the presentation.
  5. Invite feedback from the other learners.
  6. Provide slot for refining the individual work in groups.
  7. Give proper instructions regarding the following.

How to share the written work

  • What are the things to be taken care of while writing ( checking missing words, excess words, proper word forms, using proper punctuations, other writing conventions)
  • whether all members are writing down the group product in their notebooks on a separate page

Who will present the work in the whole class?

  1. Monitor the group work to ensure proper collaboration.
  2. Provide slot for presentation by the groups.
  3. Give feedback.
  4. Present your version of the discourse.


  1. Conduct the editing as a whole class activity through interaction.
    • Thematic editing and checking discourse features
    • Editing the well-formedness of the sentence (sentence structure) – word order, excess words, missing words
    • Editing the errors related to word forms (tense forms, prefixes, suffixes, agreement, etc.)
    • Editing punctuations
    • Editing spelling errors
  2. Check the remaining groups’ products undertaken by the groups.
  3. Let the learners refine their individual work based on these inputs on a separate page.
  4. Compile the refined works together to make the big book.
  5. Download the ZIP File from here

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