Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the flagship programme of Government of India which aims at providing quality elementary education to all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years. The National Curriculum Framework, 2005 also emphasises the need for improvement in the quality of education. In the context of elementary education following quality dimensions have been identified.
Quality Dimensions of Elementary Education
1. Basic Infrastructure and other Facilities
2. Management and Community Support
3. School and Classroom Environment
4. Curriculum and Teaching Learning Material
5. Teacher and Teacher Preparation
6. Opportunity Time (Teaching-Learning Time)
7. Classroom Practices and Processes
8. Learners’ Assessment, Monitoring and Supervision
With a view to managing the quality of elementary education under SSA, the MHRD through NCERT put in place a massive programme of monitoring quality dimensions of elementary education throughout the country during 2005-06. The Department of Elementary Education, NCERT in consultation with States/ UTs, NUEPA, TSG and MHRD, Government of India developed a set of Quality Monitoring Tools (QMTs) which consisted of 14 formats and 3 analytical sheets. Different aspects of quality dimensions covered in these formats were:
1. Children’s attendance
2. Community Support and Participation;
3. Teacher and Teacher Preparation;
4. Curriculum and Teaching Learning Material;
5. Classroom Process; and
6. Learners’ Assessment, Monitoring and Supervision .
These formats known as QMTs were rolled out in all the States and UTs. Key Resource Persons from all States/ UTs were oriented to take up the task in their States/ UTs. The system of monitoring under SSA envisaged a multi-tiered approach at different levels viz. school, cluster,
block, district and state. The monitoring process involved assessing of progress, diagnosing strengths and weaknesses and taking remedial measures according to needs of teachers, schools and related educational functionaries. The objective was to help States/ UTs to institutionalize quality monitoring system with self sustained feedback mechanism.
After introduction, the States and UTs gradually built their capacity in the use of QMTs. The educational functionaries at different levels started using feedback to improve the quality of educational processes and outcomes.
The objectives of implementation of Quality Monitoring Tools are:
1. To institutionalize quality monitoring system of elementary education in the States/ UTs.
2. To promote understanding of various dimensions of quality of elementary education among state, district, sub-district and school functionaries.
3. To ascertain the participation of community in functioning and monitoring of elementary education system.
4. To monitor the progress of and provide feedback on various dimensions of quality education at elementary level within and outside the classroom, and finally
5. To improve the quality of elementary education as envisaged in RTE Act 2009.
Revision of QMTs:
With the implementation of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009 in the entire country since April 01, 2010, a need was felt to revise the Monitoring Formats and make them more meaningful and relevant. The Department of Elementary Education, NCERT revisited the QMTs with reference to the NCF-2005, RTE Act 2009, SSA Framework 2011, Model Rules for implementation of RTE Act and the experience gained in the implementation of QMTs (2005) in the States/ UTs. Efforts were made to simplify the formats and incorporate significant features of the RTE Act. The various aspects of quality covered in the revised Quality Monitoring Tools are as follows.
- Admission of all children
- Attendance of children
- Availability of textbooks and teaching learning material (TLM)
- Utilization of TLM grant
- Involvement of SMCs
- School development plan
- Age appropriate admission of out-of-school children
- Special training to children for age appropriate
- admission Efforts for children with special needs
- Gender Sensitive Environment
- Child friendly classroom organisation
- Gender Positive Environment
- Provision of free expression by all children
- Participation of children in activities
- Prohibition of physical punishment or mental harassment
- Conduct and completion of curriculum
- Assessment of learning and learners’ achievement Teachers’ position
- Teacher development system
- Provision of need-based teacher training
- System of on-site support
- Role of CRC, BRC, DIET and SCERT
- Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
The revision of QMTs consisting of 14 formats and 3 analytical sheets resulted in to seven simplified formats, to be used at different levels – school, cluster, block, district and state. The draft formats were shared in a workshop with the representative of the States .
QMTs to be used at different levels
|Sl No||Quality Monitoring Tools||Key Persons||Levels|
School Monitoring Format|
Committee Format (SMCF)
|Cluster Resource Centre Coordinator (CRCC)||Cluster|
Block Monitoring Format|
|Block Resource Centre Coordinator (BRCC)||Block|
Format ( DMF)
District Project Officer|
State Monitoring Format|
State Project Director|
SMF: SMF reflects upon the status of various indicators influencing the quality of school education.
SMCF: The SMCF provides information on perception of SMC members about the functioning of school.
COS: COS records information about various aspects of classroom processes in progress.
CMF: Part I of CMF provides consolidated information of all schools in the cluster collected through SMFs. Part II deals with the perception of CRCC about functioning of schools in the cluster.
BMF: Part I of BMF provides consolidated information of all schools in the block collected through SMFs. Part II provides consolidated information on perceptions of CRCCs. Part III deals with the perception of BRCC on various quality indicators in the block.
DMF: Part I, II and III of DMF respectively consolidate the information about schools in the district, perceptions of CRCCs and perceptions of the BRCCs on various quality indicators in the district. Part IV provides the perceptions of the DPO about quality aspects in the district.
STMF: Part I,II,III and IV and V of STMF respectively provide consolidated information about schools in the district, perceptions of CRCCs, perceptions of the BRCCs and perceptions of DPOs on various quality indicators in the district. Part V deals with the perceptions of the SPO about quality aspects in the state.
The Process of Monitoring:
The process of flow of information and provision of feedback in the implementation of QMTs is represented in figure 1.
The information collected at the lower level (for example, at school) flows to the next higher level (cluster) where it is consolidated and analyzed to provide necessary feedback and take measures for improvement at the lower level (school). This is process-based monitoring in which the purpose is not to document or pile up the data but to use it for improving the educational processes.
Guidelines for implementation of Quality Monitoring Tools
Under the revised scheme there will be four quarters of monitoring in a year, that is, the QMTs at different levels will be completed four times in a year – once in each quarter.
The School Monitoring Format (SMF), Cluster Monitoring Format (CMF), Classroom Observation Schedule (COS), Block Monitoring Format (BMF) and District Monitoring Format (DMF) are to be completed quarterly. The School Management Committee Format (SMCF) to be filled up by SMCs and consolidated by CRCCs at the cluster level will be filled up only half yearly, i.e. in the 2nd and the 4th quarters. Likewise at the State level, STMF will be completed two times in a year – in the 2 nd and the 4th quarters. A copy of the STMF will also be forwarded to the NCERT for analysis and feedback.
Flow of information from school level through State /UT level will preferably be initiated in the last month of each quarter and completed in the next month. However feedback action will continue throughout the four quarters. The duration of the four quarters may finally be decided by the States/ UTs in their own context.
Implementation of QMTs: Consolidation and Feedback Mechanism
The following procedure will be adopted for implementation of the QMTs at different levels:
School: The Head Teacher will complete the School Monitoring Format (SMF) and submit a copy of it to CRC.
SMC: SMC ( chairperson/member) will complete the School Management Committee Format (SMCF). One copy of SMCF will be retained in the school and the other sent to CRC.
Cluster: CRCC will complete the Cluster Monitoring Format (CMF) according to the guidelines provided in it. The CRCC will observe class teaching in schools of his/her cluster throughout the session and record observations in Classroom Observation Schedule (COS).On the basis of the classroom observations, he/ she will provide onsite guidance to the teachers for improvement of teaching and learning processes leading to improvement in learning outcomes of children. He/she will consolidate class room observation record of COSs of all classes/schools in the cluster in a COS format on quarterly basis. The CRCCs will also consolidate SMCF information received from all SMCs in a SMC format quarterly. The consolidated information in CMF, COS and SMCF will be analysed by the CRCC to provide feedback to the schools and teachers. He /she will take all possible steps for improvement of educational processes in the schools and at the cluster level. All CRCCs in the block will send copies of these formats to the BRCC.
Block: BRCC will complete the Block Monitoring Format (BMF) according to the guidelines given in it. BRCC will also consolidate other formats (COS, SMCF) received from the CRCCs. On the basis of analysis of information of all these formats, BRCC will provide feedback to CRCCs and take necessary action for improvement of quality dimensions in the Block. BRCC will forward copies of all completed formats to DPO and DIET.
District: DPO will complete District Monitoring Format (DMF) and consolidate the formats (COS, SMCF) received from BRCCs. He/she will provide feedback to BRCCs and take necessary action for improvement of educational processes in the district. The DMF will be forwarded to SPD and SCERT. Consolidated COS and SMCF will be retained at the district level. These may be provided to the DIET, SCERT, SPO or NCERT for analysis if needed.
State: SPD/ concerned State Coordinator, SSA will complete/ consolidate the State Monitoring Format (STMF) received from DPOs. The information will be analysed and appropriate necessary action taken for improvement of educational processes in the State/UT. Copies of consolidated formats will be forwarded to the Department of Elementary Education, NCERT, New Delhi and the concerned Regional Institute of Education.
NCERT: At NCERT level, the Department of Elementary Education and RIEs will analyse the information received and provide feedback to the State/UT for improvement.
Role of DIET and SCERT: DIETs and SCERT/SIE have to play an important role in the implementation of QMTs in the State/UT. The QMT formats seek to rejuvenate the academic resource support structures at the cluster, block and district levels for bringing improvement in classroom processes and students’ performance. The DIETs and SCERT/SIE in the State/UT would analyse the Quality Monitoring Data. The DIETs need to analyse the Quality Monitoring Data at the cluster, block and district levels and provide area/context specific feedback for corrective measures.
At the State Level the SCERT/SIE needs to collect and analyse Quality Monitoring Data emerged from STMF and district level consolidated COSs and SMCFs and evolve a mechanism to improve teaching and learning processes as per provisions given in section 29 of the RTE Act. DIETs and SCERT/SIE need to build up strong linkages with educational functionaries and structures at different levels in the State/UT.