Exam Pattern & Syllabus for APPSC Geology Subject Degree Lecturers 2021

Exam Pattern & Syllabus for APPSC Geology Subject Degree Lecturers, APPSC has given the Degree College Lecturers Recruitment notification and online applications are invited online from qualified candidates to the post of Degree College Lecturers in Govt Degree Colleges in the State of Andhra Pradesh.

The proforma Application will be available on the Commission’s Website (www.psc.ap.gov.in) from 29/12/2016 to 28/01/2017 (Note: 27/01/2017 is the last date for payment of fee up- to 11:59 midnight). APPSC Degree College Lecturers Recruitment 2017 notification no.26/2016 and apply online now  @ http://appscapplications17.apspsc.gov.in/

Scheme of Exam: Exam Pattern & Syllabus for APPSC Geology Subject Degree Lecturers

PapersNo. of   Questions Duration   (Minutes) Maximum   Marks
PART-A: Written ‘Examination (Objective Type)
Paper-1: General Studies & Mental Ability150150150
Paper-2:  Geology subject150150300
PART-B: Interview (Oral Test)  50
TOTAL 500

NEGATIVE  MARKS: 
As per G.O.Ms. No.235, Finance (HRI, Plg & Policy) Dept., Dt.06/12/2016, for each wrong answer will be penalized with 1/3rd of the marks prescribed for the question.

Geology Subject Syllabus: Exam Pattern & Syllabus for APPSC Geology Subject Degree Lecturers

1. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing

Basic principles, weathering, and soils, mass wasting, the influence of climate on processes. Concept of erosion cycles. Geomorphology of fluvial tracts, arid zones, coastal regions, karst landscapes, and glaciated ranges. Applications of Geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering, hydrology and environmental studies, topographical maps, and geomorphology of India.

Concepts and principles of aerial photography and photogrammetry Satellite Remote Sensing. Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing. Use of Remote Sensing in landforms, land use, and structural mapping, Hydrogeological studies and mineral exploration. Geographic Information System (GIS) – principles and applications.

2.Structural geology and Geotectonics

Principles of geological mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, the stress-strain relationship of elastic, plastic and viscous materials. The behavior of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. Structural analysis of folds, cleavages, lineations, joints, and faults. Superposed deformation. Mechanism of folding and faulting. Unconformities and basement cover relations. Structural behavior of igneous rocks, diapirs and salt domes. Fundamentals of retro fabric analysis. Earth and solar system. Planetary evolution of earth and its internal structure.

Heterogeneity of the earth’s crust. Major tectonic features of the oceanic and continental crust. Continental drift-geological, geophysical and other evidence, mechanics, objections and present status. Gravity and magnetic anamolies at mid-oceanic ridges, deep-sea trenches, continental shield areas, and mountain chains. Paleomagnetism, seafloor spreading and plate tectonics, Island arcs, oceanic islands and volcanic arcs, isostasy, orogeny, epeirogeny, geosynclines, and seismic belts of the earth. Seismicity and plate movements. Geodynamics of the Indian plate.

3.Stratigraphy

Nomenclature and the modern stratigraphic code. Radioisotopes and measuring geological time. Geological time scale, stratigraphic procedures of correlation of unfossiliferous rocks. Precambrian stratigraphy of India. Stratigraphy of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic and Cenozoic formations of India. Gondwana system and Gondwana land, and origin of the Himalaya and evolution of Siwalik basin, Deccan volcanic. Quaternary stratigraphy, rock record, paleoclimates, and paleogeography.

4. Paleontology

Fossil records, morphology and time range fossil groups. Evolutionary changes in Mollusks and mammals in geological time. Principles of evolution. Use of species and genera of foraminifera and Echinodermata in biostratigraphic correlation. Siwalik vertebrate fauna and flora, different microfossil groups and their distribution in India.

5. Crystallography and Mineralogy

Physical, chemical and crystallographic characteristics of the common rock-forming mineral group. Silicate structures. Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulfide, halide and oxide groups.

Optical properties of common rock-forming silicate minerals, uniaxial and biaxial minerals. Extinction, pleochroism, the birefringence of mineral and their relation with mineral composition. Twinned crystals and dispersion of the optic axis and crystallographic axis.

6. Igneous and Metamorphic petrology

Forms, textures, and structures of igneous rocks, silicate melt equilibria, binary and ternary phase diagrams, Petrology and geotectonic evolution of granites, basalts, andesites, and alkaline rocks. Petrology of gabbros, kimberlites, anorthosites, and carbonatites. Origin and evolution of magmas. Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks. Regional and contact metamorphism of pelitic and impure calcareous rocks. Mineral assemblages and P/T conditions. Characteristics of different grades and facies of metamorphism, Metasomatism, and granitization, migmatites. Plate tectonics and metamorphic zones. Paired metamorphic belts.

7. Sedimentology

Provenance and diagenesis of sediments, Sedimentary textures. Framework matrix and cement of terrigenous sediments. Definition, measurement, and interpretation of grain size. Elements of hydraulics, primary structure, paleocurrent analysis. Biogenic and chemical sedimentary structures. Sedimentary environment and facies. Facies modeling for marine, nonmarine and mixed sediments. Tectonics and sedimentation. Classification and definition of sedimentary basins, sedimentary basins of India. Cycle sediments. Seismic and sequence stratigraphy. Purpose and scope of basin analysis. Structure contours and isopach maps.

8. Geochemistry

Earth in relation to the solar system and universe, a cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements. Trace elements. Elementary crystal chemistry and thermodynamics. Introduction to isotope geochemistry. Geochemistry of hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere. Geochemical cycle and principles of geochemical prospecting. Origin of elements.

9. Environmental geology

Concepts and principles. Natural hazards, preventive/precautionary measures- floods, landslides, earthquakes, rivers, and coastal erosion. Impact assessment of anthropogenic activities such as urbanization, open-cast mining, and quarrying, river-valley projects, disposal of industrial radioactive waste. Excess withdrawal of groundwater, use of fertilizers, dumping of ores, mine waste and fly-ash. Organic and inorganic contamination of groundwater and their remedial measures. Soil degradation and remedial methods. Environmental protection-legislative measures in India. Factors for groundwater subsidence.

10.Indian mineral deposits and mineral economics

Occurrence and distribution of metalliferous deposits-base metals, iron, manganese, aluminum, platinum, chromium, nickel, gold, silver, molybdenum. Indian deposits of non-metals-mica, asbestos, barite, gypsum, apatite, and beryl. Phosphorite, placer, and rare earth mineral deposits. Gemstones, raw materials used for refractories, abrasives, glass, fertilizers, paints, ceramics and cement industries. Strategic, critical and essential minerals. India’s status in mineral production. Change in pattern of mineral consumption, National Mineral Policy. Mineral concession rules, Marine mineral resources and the law of the sea. Conservation and substitution of minerals.

11. Ore genesis

Ore deposits and ore minerals. Magmatic processes of mineralization, porphyry, skarn, and hydrothermal mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies and paragenesis. Mineralization associated with – i. ultramafic, mafic and acid rocks, ii. Greenstone belts, iii. Komatites, anorthosites and kimberlites, iv, Submarine volcanism-volcanogenic deposits. Magma-related mineralization through geological time. Stratiform and stratabound ores. Syngenetic deposits, residual and mechanical concentration processes, supergene sulfide and oxide enrichments.

12. Mineral exploration

Methods of surface and subsurface exploration, prospecting for economic minerals and fuels-drilling, sampling, and assaying. Geophysical techniques – gravity, electrical, magnetic, airborne, and seismic. Instrumental techniques of detection and measurement of radioactivity. Radioactive methods for prospecting and assaying of mineral deposits. Geomorphological and remote sensing techniques. Geobotanical and geochemical methods. Borehole logging and survey for deviation.

13. Fuels

Definition, the origin of coal, the stratigraphy of coal measures. Fundamentals of coal petrology, peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite. Industrial application of coal. Indian coal deposits.

Origin, accumulation, migration, and entrapment of natural hydrocarbons. Characters of reservoir rocks. Structural, stratigraphic and mixed traps. Geographical and geological distribution of petroliferous basins of India. Gas hydrates and Coal Bed Methane occurrences.

Mineralogy and geochemistry of radioactive minerals. Distribution of radioactive minerals in India. Radioactive methods in petroleum exploration-well logging techniques. Nuclear waste disposal-geological constraints.

14. Engineering geology

Mechanical properties of rocks and soils. Geological investigations for river-valley projects-dams and reservoirs; tunnels-type, methods and problems. Bridges-types and foundation problems. Shoreline engineering, landslides, classification, causes, prevention, and rehabilitation. Earthquake resistant structures. Problems of groundwater in engineering projects. Geotechnical case studies of major projects in India.

15. Hydrogeology

Origin of water-meteoric, juvenile, and connate. Hydrological cycle-evaporation, precipitation, runoff. Hydrographs, water table contour maps. Rock properties affecting groundwater. Types of aquifers. Porosity, permeability, specific yield and retention, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, storage, and storage coefficient.

Well, hydraulics, general flow equations, the study of unidirectional flow, radial flow to a well, unsteady radial flow in a confined and unconfined aquifer. Water level fluctuation and causative factors. Methods of pumping tests and analyses, evaluation of aquifer

parameters. Artificial recharge of groundwater. Groundwater legislation. Sustainability criteria and managing renewable and non-renewable groundwater resources.

Groundwater quality-sources of salinity, estimation of major elements, interpretation of chemical analyses. Groundwater pollution, arsenic, and fluoride problems. Groundwater quality maps of India. Quality criteria for groundwater use. Saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers and remedial methods.

Surface geophysical methods-seismic, gravity, geoelectrical and magnetic. Subsurface geophysical methods-well logging for delineation of aquifers and estimation of water quality.

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