Carefully watch your thoughts, for they become your words. Manage and watch your words, for they will become your actions. Consider and judge your actions, for they have become your habits. Acknowledge and watch your habits, for they shall become your values. Understand and embrace your values, for they become your destiny.- Mahatma Gandhi
Philosophical Basis :
The primary purpose of education is the manifestation of perfection already in man and woman (Swami Vivekananda); the purpose of education is the all-round development of the child/individual. The Report of the International Commission on Education for 21st Century to UNESCO referred to four planes of living of human individuals namely; physical, intellectual, mental and spiritual.
Thus, all-round development as the stated purpose of education implies optimization of the hidden potential of every child in the physical, intellectual, mental and spiritual planes. The CBSE in 2010 initiated for the first time an effort to translate the lofty goal of all-round development into practice by introducing CCE – scheme in schools.
Globalisation in every sphere of society has important implications for education. We are witnessing increasing commercialization of education. We need to be vigilant about the pressures to commodity schools and the application of market-related concepts to schools and school quality. The increasingly competitive environment into which schools are being drawn and the aspirations of parents place a tremendous burden of stress and anxiety on children, to the detriment of their personal growth and development and thus hamper the joy of learning.
The aims of education simultaneously reflect the current needs and aspirations of a society, its lasting values, concerns as well as broad human ideals. At any given time and place, they can be called the contemporary and contextual articulation of universal human values.
The Framework :
An understanding of learners, educational aims, the nature of knowledge, and the nature of the school as a social space can help us arrive at principles to guide classroom practices. Conceptual development is thus a continuous process of deepening and enriching connections and acquiring new layers of meaning. Alongside is the development of theories that children have about the natural and social worlds, including themselves in relation to others, which provide them with explanations for why things are the way they are, the relationships between causes and effects, and the bases for decisions and acting. Attitudes, emotions and values are thus an integral part of cognitive development, and are linked to the development of language, mental representations, concepts and reasoning. As children’s meta cognitive capabilities develop, they become more aware of their own beliefs and capable of regulating their own learning.
As children’s meta cognitive capabilities develop, they become more aware of their own beliefs and capable of regulating their own learning.
Accordingly, National Curriculum Framework – 2005 (NCF-05) proposing Examination Reforms has stated -“Indeed, Boards should consider, as a long-term measure, making the Class X examination optional, thus permitting students continuing in the same school (and who do not need a Board certificate) to take an internal school examination instead”.
As a sequel to the above, the Position Paper on `Examination Reforms’ by NCERT 2006, says, “Indeed, it is our view that the tenth grade exam be made optional forthwith. Tenth-graders who intend continuing in the eleventh grade at the same school and do not need the Board certificate for any immediate purpose, should be free to take a school-conducted exam instead of the Board exam.”
Obviously, the efforts of CBSE to provide a leadership and pioneering role in implementing CCE is a major breakthrough which attempts to elevate the status of the schools as equal partners of the Board in assessing the attainment levels of learners.
There are several frameworks that can be referred to derive a meaningful working framework for assessing all round development of the child including Scholastic and Co- Scholastic domains.
The ‘Report of the International Commission’ UNESCO referred above propagated the concept of four pillars of learning, namely
- Learning to learn – skills of learning – learning styles, attitude to learning.
- Learning to do – skills to perform.
- Lear ning to l ive together – interpersonal skills, tolerance and respect for difference and divergence.
- Learning to be – striving for excellence, learning for selfactualization.
- Linguistic – communication.
- Logical – mathematical – abstract, mechanical reasoning.
- Musical – vocal, instrumental, musical aptitude.
- Kinesthetic – sports and games, dance and dramatics, sculpting, making models.
- Intra-personal – stress management, management of positive and negative emotions, joyfulness, optimism, hopefulness.
- Interpersonal – relationships, team work, leadership, cooperation.
- Environmental – aesthetics, ethics and values, gardening, interior decoration.
- Spatial-understanding and organizing of space.
Life Skills Framework:
- Self Awareness.
- Critical Thinking.
- Creative Thinking.
- Decision Making.
- Problem Solving.
- Effective Communication.
- Interpersonal Relationships.
- Coping with Stress and Anger.
- Managing Emotions.
Attitudes, interests and aptitudes:
Education aims at making children capable of becoming responsible, productive and useful members of society. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are built through learning experiences and opportunities created for learners in school. It is in the classroom that learners can analyse and evaluate their experiences, learn to doubt, to question, to investigate and to think independently.
Place of Evaluation in the Curriculum:
A curriculum is what constitutes a total teaching-learning program composed of overall aims, syllabus, materials, methods and assessment. In short it provides a framework of knowledge and capabilities, seen as appropriate to a particular level. The syllabus provides a statement of purpose, means and standards against which one can check the effectiveness of the program and the progress made by the learners. Evaluation not only measures the progress and achievement of the learners but also the effectiveness of the teaching materials and methods used for transaction. Hence evaluation should be viewed as a component of curriculum with the twin purpose of effective delivery and further improvement in the teaching– learning process.