Spoken English to teachers -Inviting, Accepting & Declining Invitation-Grammar

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SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-65 (01-06-2021)
Let’s see the change of tense indirect speech to indirect speech

TENSE CHANGE – IN – INDIRECT SPEECH
Present simple tense into Past simple Present Continuous tense into Past continuous Present Perfect tense into Pas perfect Present Perfect Continuous into Past perfect continuous Past simple into Past Perfect Past Continuous into Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect into Past Perfect Future simple, will into would Future Continuous, will be into would be Future Perfect, will have into would have

Examples.
DIRECT SPEECH. ………….INDIRECT SPEECH
PRESENT TENSE

PRESENT SIMPLE changes into PAST SIMPLE
He said, “I write a letter” (D.S ).
He said that he wrote a letter. (I.D.S)
She said, “he goes to school daily”
He said that she went to school daily.
They said, “we love our country”
They said that they loved their country
He said, “he does not like computer”
He said that he did not like computer.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS changes into PAST CONTINUOUS
He said, “he is listening to the music”
He said that he was listening to the music.
She said, “I am washing my clothes”
She said that she was washing her clothes.

They said, “we are enjoying the weather”
They said that they were not enjoying the weather

I said, “it is raining”
I said that it was raining.
She said, “I am not laughing”
She said that she was not laughing.

PRESENT PERFECT changes into PAST PERFECT
She said, “he has finished his work”
She said that he had finished his work.

He said, “I have started a job”
He said that he had started a job.
I said, “she have eaten the meal”
I said that she had eaten the meal.

They said, “we have not gone to New York.
They said that they had not gone to New York.

PRESENT PERFECT* CONTINUOUS changes into PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
He said, “I have been studying since 3 O’clock”
He said that he had been studying since 3 O’clock.

She said, “It has been raining for three days.”
She said that it been raining for three days.

I said, “She has been working in this office since 2007”
I said that she had been working in this office since 2007.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-64(31-5-2021)
Let’s see some more rules :

A. Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time change as follows:
DIRECT SPEECH – INDIRECT SPEECH*
today                                    that day 
yesterday                             the day before 
the day before yesterday  two days before 
tomorrow                             the next day/the following day 
the day after tomorrow     in two day’s time 
next week/year etc.             the following week/year etc. 
last week/year etc.              the previous week/year etc. 
a year etc.                             ago a year before/the previous year

Examples:
“I saw her the day before yesterday”, he said.
He said he’d seen her two days before.

“I’ll do it tomorrow”, he promised. 
He promised that he would do it the next day.

She said, “My father died a year ago”.
She said that her father had died a year before/the previous year.

But if the speech is made and reported on the same day these time changes are not necessary:
~At breakfast this morning he said, “I’ll be very busy today”.
At breakfast this morning he said that he would be very busy today. 

here can become there but only when it is clear what place is meant:
~At the station he said, “I’ll be here again tomorrow”. 
He said that he’d be there again the next day. 

Usually here has to be replaced by some phrase:
~She said, “You can sit here, Tom”. 
She told Tom that he could sit beside her.

STATEMENTS IN INDIRECT SPEECH: TENSE CHANGES NECESSARY 

  • Indirect speech can be introduced by a verb in a present tense: He says that … This is usual when we are: 
  • reporting a conversation that is still going on 
  • reading a letter and reporting what it says 
  • reading instructions and reporting them 
  • reporting a statement that someone makes very often,

e.g. Tom says that he’ll never get married. 
When the introductory verb is in a present, present perfect or future tense we can report the direct speech without any change of tense: 
PAUL (phoning from the station): I’m trying to get a taxi.
ANN (to Mary, who is standing beside her): Paul says he is trying to get a taxi.

Let’s see some other rules in the next sessions….
SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-1(26-3-2021)

1.పిల్లలుఅందరూ ఈ రోజు టిఫిన్ తిని వస్తిరా
Children do you have your breakfast today

2.పిల్లలు అల్లరి చేయవద్దు
Children Don’t make  noise

3.పిల్లలు నన్ను అడగకుండా బయటకి వేల్లవద్దు
Children don’t go out without my permission

4.మీరు ఈ రోజు ఎందుకు యూనిఫాం వేసుకురాలేదు
why don’t you wear uniform today

5.పిల్లలు మీలో మీరు మాట్లాడుకోవద్దు
Children don’t talk among yourselves

Simple words:

  1. Noise = శబ్ధము
  2. Murmur = గుసగుస
  3. Fabulous  = అద్భుతం
  4. Few = కొద్దిగా
  5. Silence = నిశబ్దము

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-62(29-5-2021)

INVITING, ACCEPTING & DECLINING INVITATION

Inviting:

  • Would you like to ….
  • Could you come to…
  • I’d very much like
  • Would you care to ….
  • I’ll really happy if you come to….
  • I’m sure that you won’t be disappointed to come to….

Accepting an Invitation:

  • Thank you for inviting me.
  • I would/will ….
  • That would be very nice.
  • I’d like to love to come.
  • That’s fine.
  • Sure. Why not?

Declining an Invitation

  • I’m very sorry, I don’t think I can.
  • I’d like to, but ….
  • Thank you for asking me, but ….
  • Unfortunately, I can’t ….

Conversation 1 – Informal
A: “What are you doing on Friday night?”
B: “Nothing special. Why?”
A: “Do you wanna see a movie?”
B: “Sure! What time?”
A: “Can I pick you up around 7?”
B: “Sounds good.”
Notes:

  • “pick you up” means that person A will go to person B’s house and take person B to the movie. .
  • “Sounds good” means that person B approves of this plan.

Conversation 2 (Formal)
A: “Are you free next Saturday?”
B: “I believe so.”
A: “We were wondering if you’d like to go to a cricket match with us. We have an extra ticket.”
B: “I’d love to!”
Notes:

  • “We were wondering if…” makes the invitation less direct. It can be used in formal situations, or in informal situations if the person making the invitation is a little shy .

Conversation 3(Formal)
A: “We’re going to the Italian restaurant. Would you care to join us?”
B: “I’d love to, but I’m afraid I have another commitment this evening. Maybe another time.”
Notes:

  • “Would you care to join us?” is used in more formal conversation.
  • “Maybe another time” means that person B would like to be invited by person A again in the future. Another phrase used for this is “Can I take a rain check?”

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-11

  1. ఆమెకు తెలియదు
  • She doesn’t know
  1. అతను నిన్న స్కూల్ కి రాలేదు
  • He didn’t come to school yesterday
  1. పిల్లలు,మీకు జవాబు తెలిస్తే చేతులు ఎత్తoడి
  • Children,raise your hands If u know the answer
  1. పిల్లలు,మీ పుస్తకాలను బ్యాగ్ లో పెట్టుకోండి
  • Children,keep your books in the bag
    5.తరగతి గదిలో మొబైల్ ఫోన్ వాడరాదు
  • don’t use mobile phone in the classroom

MEANINGS & EX
1.Lagging = ( వెనుకబడిపోవు)
Ex: If you don’t work hard, you will be lagging behind in the class.
2.Scrupulously = ( సంపూర్ణంగా,లోపం లేకుండా )
Ex: You must follow these orders scrupulously.

  1. Regret = feel sorry { పశ్చాత్తాపపడు )
    Ex: Never regret that you don’t know something. Regret if you don’t try to know.
    4.Hospitality ( అతిథి మర్యాదలు)
    Ex: Indians are well known for their hospitality.
  2. Condemn = strong disapproval ( ఖండించు)
    The PM condemned the attack on the airport.

VERB FORMS
Present-past-past participle
1.Sell-sold -sold
2.Hide – hid- hidden
3.Drink – drank – drunk
4.Steal – stole- stolen
5.Make – made – made


SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-2 

  1. పిల్లలు ఈ రోజు హోమ్ వర్క్ రేపు చేసుకుని రావాలి
  • Children do your home work at home and bring tomorrow.
  1. పిల్లలు పాఠశాలకు సమయానికి రావాలి
  • Children you should come to school in time
  1. పిల్లలు మీరు మీ తరగతి గదిని శుభ్రంగా ఉంచుకోవాలి
  • Children keep your class room clean
  1. పిల్లలు మీరు ప్రతిరోజు స్నానం చేయాలి
  • Children take bath daily
  1. పిల్లలు మధ్యాహ్న భోజనానికి ముందు చేతులను శుభ్రంగా కడుక్కోవాలి
  • Before going to have lunch,wash ur hands properly.

MEANINGS

  1. Respect = గౌరవం
  2. Obedient = విధేయత
  3. Punctual = సమయపాలన
  4. Careful = జాగ్రత్త
  5. Futile = నిష్ఫలం

Proverbs-సామెతలు

  1. అవసరానికి ఆదుకున్నవాడే మంచి మిత్రుడు
     – A friend in need is a friend indeed.
  2. సోమరిపోతు బుర్ర దెయ్యాల కొంప
  • An empty brain is the devil’s workshop.
  1. మేరిసేదంతా బంగారం కాదు

– All that glitters is not gold

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-4

  1. పిల్లలు మీరు రోజు తప్పకుండా 3 లీటర్ల నీరు త్రాగాలి
  • Children, you must drink 3 litres of water everyday.
  1. మీ యొక్క చేతిరాతను మెరుగుపరచుకొవడానికి ప్రతిరోజు చుచివ్రాత వ్రాయాలి
  • Practice writing a page everyday to improve your  handwriting
  1. పిల్లలు ప్రతిరోజు ఉదయం వేకువజామున లేచి చదువుకోవాలి
  • Children, everyday wake up early in the morning read.
  1. పిల్లలు మీ పాఠశాల,ఇంటి పరిసరాలు పరిశుభ్రoగా ఉంచుకోవాలి
  • Children,  keep the premises of your school and house clean.
  1. ప్రతిరోజు పాఠశాలకు క్రమం తప్పకుండా హాజరుకావాలి
  • Children, you must  attend (come to) school regularly.

MEANINGS

  1. Belong = సంబందించు
  2. Absolute = సమగ్ర
  3. Ache = నొప్పి,బాధ
  4. Bouquet = పుష్పగుచ్చo
  5. Meagre = చాలా చిన్న

PRO VERBS-సామెతలు

  1. దిగటానికి ముందు లోతు తెలుసుకో
  • Look before you leap.
  1. అనుభవమే గొప్ప అధ్యాపకుడు
  • Experience is the greatest teacher
  1. కాలము,కెరటాలు ఎవరి కోసమూ ఆగవు
  • Time and tide waits for none.
  1. చెప్పటం కంటే చేయటం మేలు
  • Doing is better than saying
  1. నేర్చుకోవడానికి జీవించు-జీవించటము నేర్చుకో

– Live to learn and learn to live

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-3

  1. పిల్లలు పుస్తకాలలోని పేజీల ను చిoపొద్దు
  • Children don’t tear the pages from your books.
  1. పిల్లలు నేను పాఠం చెప్పేటపుడు శ్రద్దగా వినాలి
  • Children when i’m teaching the lesson you should listen carefully
  1. పిల్లలు నేను చెప్పే పాఠం మీకు అర్ధం కాకపోతే మళ్ళీ అడగండి చెబుతాను
  • Children if you don’t understand the lesson then ask me,i will teach again
  1. పిల్లలు పాఠశాల ప్రాంగణంలో ని చెట్లకు రోజు నీరు పోయాలి
  • Children daily you should water the plants which are in the school premises
  1. పిల్లలు హాజరు తీసుకునే సమయంలో శ్రధ్ధగా విని పలకాలి
  • While I am taking the attendance,listen carefully and give your attendance.

MEANINGS

  1. Performance = ప్రదర్శన
  2. Goal = లక్ష్యం
  3. System = వ్యవస్థ
  4. Premises = ప్రాంగణం,పరిసరాలు
  5. Thoughts = ఆలోచనలు

PROVERBS-సామెతలు
వజ్రాన్ని కోయటానికి వజ్రమే కావాలి

– A diamond cuts diamonds

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-10

  1. పిల్లలు, అటెండెన్స్ తీసుకుంటాను. పలకండి.
  • Children,I will take attendance. Attend your roll calls.
  1. నేను క్లాస్ చెప్పేటప్పుడు ఎవరు మాట్లాడొద్దు.
  • No one should speak when I am teaching the class.
  1. పిల్లలు, ఈ పాఠాన్ని ఇంటిదగ్గర బాగా చదవండి.
  • Children,read this lesson thoroughly at home.
  1. శ్రీధర్, మీ నాన్న ఏం పని చేస్తాడు?
  • Sridhar,what is your father ?
  1. పిల్లలు, నీటిని వృధా చెయ్యొద్దు.
  • Children,don’t waste water

MEANINGS & EX

  1. reluctant = unwilling ( నిరాసక్తత)
  • He was reluctant to attend the party.
  1. sluggish = lazy ( సోమరి)
  • He works in a sluggish manner
  1. humiliate = insult ( అవమానించు /  చులకన  చేయు)
  • Don’t humiliate the poor. They were born just like we all.
  1. gorgeous = splendid ( అద్భుతమైన)
  •  it was a gorgeous Sunset at Munnar.
  1. Windup =Finish(ముగించు)
  • I shall windup this meeting by 5pm

VERB FORMS
Present-past-past participle

  1. Arise -arose -arisen
  2. Awake-awoke-awoken
  3. Drive -drove -driven
  4. throw- threw -thrown

5. Tear-tore-torn(చింపడం)

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-9 SUNDAY SPL-01
1.ఈ రోజు మటన్ తెచ్చుకుందామా,చికెనా ?

  • What shall we bring today,  mutton or chicken ?
    2.ఈ రోజు హాలిడే కావున మధ్యాహ్నం ఒక గంట హాయిగా నిద్రపోవాలి
  • Today is a holiday. So I want to sleep for an hour in the afternoon.
    3.సాయంత్రం సినిమాకు వెళదాం అని అనుకుంటున్నాం
  • We are planning to go to a movie this evening.
    4.10వ తరగతి పరీక్షల్లో ఒక సోషల్ పేపర్-II మాత్రమే మిగిలివుంది.
  • Only one Social Paper is left in tenth class examinations.
    5.వేసవిలో వాటర్ మిలన్ తింటే ఆరోగ్యానికి చాలా మంచిది.
  • Watermelon is  very good for health in summer.

MEANINGS & EX

  1. supper = the evening meal ( సాయంకాలపు భోజనం )
    I had my supper at 7 p.m and went to a movie.
  2. Convey = communicate (తెలియజేయు )
    Convey my respects to your parents.
  3. later = afterwards ( తర్వాత)
    I am busy now.  I shall call you later.
  4. chronic = long-lasting ( దీర్ఘకాలిక )
    It is said that cancer is a chronic disease.
  5. crumble = break into pieces ( ముక్కలగు )
    The old wall crumbled down due to heavy rain.

VERB FORMS

  1. Teach-taught-taught
  2. Think-thought-thought
  3. Buy-bought-bought
  4. Bring-brought -brought

5. Seek-sought-sought

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-8

  1. Children, be regular to school.
  • పిల్లలూ , పాఠశాలకు క్రమం  తప్పకుండా హాజరుకండి.
  1. Srinu,why did you beat mallesh ?
     – శ్రీనూ, మల్లేశ్ ను ఎందుకు  కొట్టావు ?
  2. Children, look at the black board only while l write.
  • పిల్లలూ,  నేను రాసేటప్పుడు మాత్రమే  నల్లబల్ల వైపు చూడండి.
  1. Children do homework after going home.
  • పిల్లలూ , ఇంటికి వెళ్ళాక  ఇంటిపని  చేయండి.
  1. Venkatesh ,why didn’t you come to school yesterday ?
     – వెంకటేశ్ ,నిన్న నీవెందుకు పాఠశాలకు రాలేదు ?

MEANINGS & EX

  1. kudos =ఏదైనా సాధించినప్పుడు చేసే ప్రశంస , గౌరవము
    Ex: He received kudos from everyone when he set the record.
  2. mandatory = compulsory
    Ex: A Passport is mandatory to visit America
  3. inevitable = నివారింపలేనిది (unavoidable)
    Ex: Death is inevitable to all humans.
  4. alarming = dangerous (ప్రమాదకరమైన)
    Ex: The situation of Govt Schools has reached an alarming stage.
  5.  apology = sorry ( క్షమాపణ)
    Ex: Please accept my sincere apology.

VERB FORMS
Present- past -past participle

  1. Sleep-slept-slept
  2. Hold-held-held
  3. Speak-spoke-spoken
  4. Begin-began -begun

5. Win-won-won

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-7

  1. పిల్లలు అల్లరి చేయవద్దు
  • Children don’t make noise
  1. నేను చెప్పింది జాగ్రత్తగా వినండి
     – Listen to me carefully
  2. పిల్లలు ఎండలో ఆడవద్దు
  • Children don’t play in the hot sun
  1. మీకేమైనా సందేహాలు ఉన్నాయా ?
  • Do you have any doubts?
  1. పిల్లలు గట్టిగా చెప్పండి
     – Children say loudly

MEANINGS

  1. Dawn to dusk = ఉదయం నుండి సాయంత్రం వరకు
  2. Marigold = బంతిపువ్వు
  3. Enrich = Develop
  4. Forthwith = immediately

VERB FORMS
Present- past -past participle
1.Go-went- gone
2.Write-wrote-written
3.Send-sent-sent
4.Do-did-done

5.come-came-come

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-6

  1. పిల్లలు రేపు మీ నోట్ బుక్ లు సరిచుస్తాను,పూర్తిచేయండి
  • Children tomorrow i will correct your notes, complete it
  1. ఉగాది పండగ సంధర్భంగా రేపు పాఠశాలకు సెలవు
  • On the occasion of Ugadi festival, school will be closed tomorrow.
  1. పిల్లలు ఫ్యాన్ అఫ్ చేసి,విద్యుత్ ని పొదుపు చేయండి
  • Children switch off the Fan and save power
  1. పిల్లలు సకాలంలో ఇంటి పనిని పూర్తిచేయండి
     – Children complete the home work in time
  2. పిల్లలు ఇతరులకు సహాయం చేయడానికి ప్రయత్నించండి
  • Children always try to help others

MEANINGS
Outstanding = అసాధారణ

  1. Broom stick = చీపురుకట్ట
  2. Applaud = చప్పట్లు
  3. Disgust = చిరాకు,విసుగు,అసహ్యం
  4. Blossoms = పుష్పాలు

PRO VERB-సామెతలు

  1. ముఖము మనిషి మనోభావాలకు అద్దమువంటిది
  • The face is the index of mind
  1. కాలము సముద్రపు అలలు ఎవరికోసము ఆగవు
  • Time and tide waits for none
  1. నిప్పు లేకుండా పొగ రాదు
  • There is no smoke without fire

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-5

  1. పిల్లలు తరగతి గదిలోకి ఉపాధ్యాయుని అనుమతి లేకుండా ప్రవేశించరాదు.
  • Children don’t enter into the classroom without teacher permission
  1. ప్రతి విద్యార్థి పాఠశాలలలోనే భోజనం చేయాలి
  • Every student should have their lunch in school only
  1. పిల్లలు ఎవరితోనూ కఠినంగా మాట్లాడవద్దు
  • Children don’t speak rudely to everyone
  1. పిల్లలు పాఠశాల గ్రంధాలయ పుస్తకాలను వినియోగించుకుని ప్రజ్ఞను పెంపొందించుకోవాలి
  • Children use your school library books to improve your knowledge
  1. చదవడం అనేది ఉత్తమరకమైన వృత్తి
  • The best kind of occupation is reading

MEANINGS
Sophisticated = అధునాతన

  1. Coward = పిరికిపంద
  2. Thee = మీరు
  3. Snore = గురక
  4. Invented = స్రుస్టిoఛబడెను
  5. Discover = కనుగొనుట

PRO VERBS

  1. అపజయాలు విజయాలకు సోపానాలు
  • Failures are stepping stones to success.
  1. ఆరోగ్యమే మహాభాగ్యం
  • Health is wealth
  1. సరిగా బాగా ప్రారంభమయిన పని సగము అయినట్లే
  • Well begun is half done

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-13

  1. నిబంధనల ప్రకారం  Half day schools నడుస్తున్నప్పుడు Second Saturday పనిదినమే
    As per the rules,Second Saturday is a working day during half day schools.
    2.రాణి మేడమ్..9వ తారీఖు నుండి SSC spot వుంది కాదా.మీకేమైనా ఆర్డర్ వచిoదా?
    Rani madam… SSC spot is from from 9 th. Have you received any order?
    3.పిల్లలు,ఎల్లుండి మన బడిలో పేరెంట్స్ మీటింగ్ ఉంది ,మీ పేరెంట్స్ ని తీసుకురండి.
    Children…There is a parents meeting on day after tomarrow in our school. come along with your parents.
    4.రమ్య.. ఎందుకు ఏడుస్తున్నవు ?
    Ramya .. Why are you crying?
    5.నిన్ను ఎవరన్న ఏమన్న అన్నరా ?
    Did anyone say you  anything?

MEANINGS & EX

  1. Abide =కట్టుబడి ఉండటం
    Ex: We have to abide by traffic rules.
  2. As much as possible =సాధ్యమైనంత వరకు
    Ex: Can you speak English as much as possible ?
  3. Acquire =పొందడం
    Ex.He acquires tremendous knowledge by reading Hindu news paper.
  4. Commend=మెచ్చుకోవడం
    Ex.He has to commend them for their glorious  performance.
  5. Provisions=కిరాణా సామాను/సరుకులు
    Ex. I must buy vegetables and provisions while coming back to my home.

VERB FORMS
Present-Past-Past participle

  1. Blow-Blew-Blown
  2. Bite-Bit-Bitten
  3. Forget-Forgot-Forgotten
  4. Draw-Drew-Drawn
  5. Know-Knew-Known

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-12(6-4-2021)

  1. అతనికి తెలుసా ?
    Does he know?
    2.శ్రీను గత 5 సంవత్సరాలుగా మా స్కూల్లోనే చదువుతున్నాడు
    Srinu has been studying in our school for the last five years.
    3.ప్రియాంక,Board మీద ఈ లెక్క చేస్తవా?
    Priyanka, will you do this problem on the black board?
    4.ఏం మల్లయ్య…నీ కొడుకును బడికి ఎందుకు పంపిస్తలేవ్ ?
    What Mallaiah… why are you not sending your son to school?
    5.పిల్లలు,రాజు Pencil పోయిందంట.ఎవరికన్న దొరికింద?

Children, Raju has lost his pencil. Did anyone find it?

MEANINGS & EX

  1. Hygienic = conductive to good health (ఆరోగ్యకరమైన )
    Teachers should inculcate hygienic eating habits among students during MDM.
  2. Scold = reprimand ( దూషించు/ తిట్టు)
    Scolding others for smallest mistakes is a bad habit.
  3. Befitting manner = in a suitable way ( తగురీతిలో / తగినవిధంగా)
    The Indian army tackled the enemy attack in a befitting manner.
  4. Defeat = to overcome in a contest ( ఓడించు)
    The West Indies defeated England in the final over.
  5. Gigantic (జైగ్యాoటిక్) = very big, huge ( చాలా పెద్దదయిన)

The Titanic was a gigantic ship.

VERB FORMS
Present-Past-Past participle

  1. Lose-lost-lost
  2. Eat -ate -eaten
  3. Fall – fell – fallen
  4. Take – took- taken
  5. Give – gave – given

SPOKEN ENGLISH for children DAY-13 (8-4-2021)

  1. శ్రీను సార్,మీ family members కి  నా తరపున  ఉగాది శుభాకాంక్షలు చెప్పండి.
    Srinu sir, Convey best wishes to your family members on  behalf of me on the eve of Ugadi.
  2. మాధవి,తొందరగా ready  అవ్వు గుడికి పోదాం.
    Madhavi,get ready soon. Let’s go to a temple.
  3. నేను చిన్నోడికి స్నానం చేయించేలోపు మీరు దర్వాజ కి తోరణాలు కట్టండి.
    You tie the mango leaves at the door top while I’ll get our son bathed.
  4. మల్లేష్,నీది ఏ రాశి?
    Mallesh, what is your zodiac sign?
  5. ఈ ఉగాదితో మొదలయ్యే  తెలుగు నూతన సంవత్సరం పేరేంటో మీకు తెలుసా ?
    Do you know the name of the Telugu new year starting with this Ugadi ?
  6. మొత్తం 60 తెలుగు  సంవత్సరాలలో ఈ దుర్ముఖి నామ సంవత్సరం 30వది.
    This Durmukhi Telugu new year is the 30th of the total 60 Telugu new year cycle.

MEANINGS & EX

  1. Awesome (ఆసమ్) = very impressive ( ఆకట్టుకునే )
    The idea of teaching spoken English through whatsapp is very awesome!!
  2. Glad = joy or pleasure (సంతోషము /
    సంతోషించు) I am glad you are here.
  3. Chatterbox = an excessively talkative person (వదురుబోతు)
    She talks too much. People call her chatterbox.
  4. Precious ( ప్రెషస్ )  = of great value (విలువైన)
    Don’t waste your time. Time is very precious.
  5. Henceforth = from now on (ఇప్పటినుండి)
    Henceforth I shall try to speak in English.

VERB FORMS
Present-Past-Past participle

  1. Read(రీడ్)-read(రెడ్)- read(రెడ్)
  2. Sell-sold – sold
  3. Sit-sat-sat
  4. Sing-sang-sung
  5. Make-made-made

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY 19

  1. రాకేష్ నువ్వు ఏం రాసావో నాకు చూపించు?
    Rakesh, please show me, what have you written?
  2. నేను తెలుగు పదాలు dictation చెబుతాను,పదాలను ఒకదాని క్రింద ఒకటి రాయండి.
    I’ll give you dictation of Telugu words, write them one after the other.
  3. సుజాత మేడమ్,మీకు spoken English messages వస్తున్నయా?
    Sujatha madam, Are you receiving Spoken English messages?
  4. నాకు రావట్లేదు మేడమ్? నాకు కూడా ఈ spoken English messages రావాలంటే ఏం చేయాలి?
    No, I am not receiving Spoken English messages. What should I do receive them?
  5. చాలా simple మేడమ్,9849909115 no.కు,మీ mobile number & name ను  message పెట్టండి.
    It’s quite simple madam, sms your mobile number & name to 9849909115.

Common Errors

  1. Incorrect : I have visited Agra last weekend.
    Correct: I visited Agra last weekend.
  2. Incorrect: My sister is married with my cousin.
    Correct : My sister is married to my cousin.
  3. Incorrect: My school is near to uppal X roads.
    Correct : My school is near uppal X roads.
  4. Incorrect : I look forward to meet you.
    Correct: I look forward to meeting you.
  5. Incorrect : I can able to speak English fluently.
    Correct:  I can speak English fluently.

SPOKEN ENGLISH  DAY16 (11-4-2021)

  1. నేను Spot కి వెళ్ళలేదు,ఈ రోజు ఖచ్చితంగా వెళ్ళాలి,లేకుంటే DEO sir Memo ఇస్తరట.
    I didn’t go to the spot yesterday. I must go today or else DEO sir would issue a memo.
  2. రమ, నువ్వు English Book తెచ్చుకోలేదా?
    Rama, Haven’t you brought your English book?
  3. ఎవరైతే బాగా చదువుతారో,వారికి Prize ఇస్తా.
    One who studies well will get a prize.
  4. శ్రీను నువ్వు బాగా చదువుతావు కాదా,శ్రీలత కన్నా తక్కువ మార్కులు ఎందుకు వచ్చాయి?
    Srinu, Though you study well, why have you scored lesser marks than srilatha?
  5. Very good Ravi,నీ FA1 project work కన్నా,FA2 project work చాలా బాగుంది.
    Very Good Ravi, your  FA2 Project work is far better than FA1

Prepostional Errors
1.Incorrect: I am going back to home  
Correct : I am going back home.

  1. Incorrect: I want to go to swimming.
    Correct : I want to go swimming.
    3.Incorrect :We will go to Ooty on next Monday.
    Correct: We will go to Ooty next Monday.
  2. Incorrect:My son will join into a Spoken English course  next month.
    Correct :My son will join a Spoken English Course next month.
    5.Incorrect :He has been working here since 20 years.
    Correct : He has been working here for 20 years.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY 18

  1. పిల్లలు, కరువు కారణంగా I to VIII class వరకు వేసవి సెలవుల్లో Mid Day Meals పెడతారు, అందరూ వచ్చి  ఖచ్చితంగా తిని పోవాలి.
    Children, Students of classes I to VIII will be provided with mid day meals in summer vacation due to drought . Everyone should come and have it.
  2. పిల్లలు,మీకేమైనా doubts ఉంటే,clear చేయించుకోండి.
    Children, If you have any doubts, get them clarified.
  3. మహేష్,ఇంకొక్కసారి రమేష్ ని కొడితే నిన్ను ఇంటికి పంపిస్తా.
    Mahesh, If you beat Ramesh once again, I will send you back home.
  4. పిల్లలు,నేను ఇప్పుడే వస్తాను,నేను వచ్చేంతవరకు ఎవ్వరూ అల్లరి చేయవద్దు.
    Children,I will just be  back in some time, till then please don’t  make noise.
  5. పిల్లలు,మీకు తలా ఒక పుస్తకం ఇస్తాను,ఇంటి దగ్గర బాగా చదువుకుని,2 రోజుల తరువాత తీసుకురావాలి.
    Children, Each one of you will get a book, read it well at home and get it back after 2 days.

General Common Errors

  1. Incorrect : what is your good name?
    Correct :what is your name?
  2. Incorrect : I am having headache .
    Correct : I have head ache.
  3. Incorrect: I and my friend went for a movie.
    Correct: My friend and I went for  a movie.
  4. Incorrect : Hyderabad Central is crowdy.
    Correct : Hyderabad Central is crowded.
  5. Incorrect : She is my cousin sister.
    Correct :She is my cousin.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-22

  1. మీరు ఎప్పుడైనా Hyderabad వెళ్ళారా ?
    Have you ever visited Hyderabad?
  2. విక్రమ్ సార్,మీరు school కి రోజు ఎక్కడి నుండి వస్తారు?
    Vikram Sir,  from where do you come to school daily..?
  3. మమత,ఈ రోజు మీ friend రజిత రాలేదా?
    Mamata, Hasn’t your friend Rajitha come today?
  4. పిల్లలు,రేపు ఈ పాఠం  నుండి ప్రశ్నలు అడుగుతాను అందరూ చదువుకుని రావాలి ?
    Students, I would ask some questions from this lesson. Do read and come. 
  5. గీత మేడమ్ ,మీ class లో 3Rs performance ఏమన్నా improve అయిందా?లేదా?
    Geeta madam,whether  your  class has shown any improvement in the performance of 3R’s or not..?

General Common Errors

  1. Incorrect: He said me a long story.
    Correct: He told me a long story.
  2. Incorrect: I was took leave yesterday.
    Correct:
    a) I was on leave yesterday.
    b) I took leave yesterday.
  3. Incorrect: My uncle has white hairs.
    Correct: My uncle has grey hair.
  4. Incorrect: I didn’t came to the class yesterday as I have some work.

Correct: I didn’t come to the class  yesterday as I had some work.

  1. Incorrect : This ring is made up of gold.

Correct : This ring is made of gold.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-21

  1. తీవ్రమైన ఎండల కారణంగా తెలంగాణ ప్రభుత్వం రేపటి నుండి  i.e 16-4-16 నుండి 12-6-16 వరకు పాఠశాలల కు వేసవి సెలవులు ప్రకటించడమైనది.బడులు తిరిగి 13-6-16 న పునః ప్రారంభిoచబడును.
    The Govt.of Telangana has declared summer holidays from 16.4.16( i.e tomorrow ) to 12.6.16.due to Scorching heat.The Schools will reopen on 13.6.16.
  2. రఘు…మేము శ్రీరామ కళ్యాణం చూడడానికి భద్రాచలం  వెళ్తున్నాము, నువ్వు కూడా మాతో వస్తవ?
    Raghu…We are going to  Bhadrachalam to witness Lord Shri Rama’s wedding. Will you also join us?
  3. ఏమండీ…రోజురోజుకూ ఎండలు ఏక్కువైపోతున్నయి, మరి కూలర్ తెచ్చుకుందమా?
    Oh my dear! Shall we buy an aircooler as temperature is rising day by day?
  4. వడదెబ్బ తగలకుండా ఎలాంటి జాగ్రత్తలు తీసుకోవాలో మీకు తెలుసా?
    Do you know,What precautions should be taken to protect ourselves from sunstroke?
  5. అబ్బ! ఈ ఎండకు ఎన్ని నీళ్ళు తాగినా దూప  ఆరుతలేదు.

Oh! I am unable to quench my thirst even after drinking many glasses of water due to this scorching heat.

General Common Errors:

  1. Incorrect: Please complete your work  fastly.
    Correct: Please complete your work fast.
  2. Incorrect : I was struck up in traffic.
    Correct : I was struck in traffic.
  3. Incorrect:  I came late why because there were guests at home.
    Correct:  I came late because there were guests at home.
  4. Incorrect: My house is back side of the Hospital
    Correct: My house is behind the Hospital
  5. Incorrect : The concerned person is not available at the office.
    Correct: The person concerned is not available at the office.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-20

  1. పిల్లలు..మన భారత రాజ్యాంగ నిర్మాత ఎవరు?
    Children…who is the principal architect of our Indian constitution?
  2. పిల్లలు…భారత రాజ్యాంగం ఎప్పటినుండి అమలులోకి వచ్చింది?
    Children..When did our Indian constitution come into force?
  3. సురేష్… భారత రాజ్యాంగాన్ని ఎన్నవ article ప్రకారం సవరించవచ్చు?
    Suresh…According to which article can  Indian constitution be amended?
  4. పిల్లలు… ఆర్ధిక శాస్త్రంలో ఆసియా ఖండం నుంచి మొట్టమొదటి డాక్టరేట్ అందుకున్న వ్యక్తి Dr.B.R.Ambedkar అని మీకు తెలుసా?
    Children…Do you know  that  Dr.B.R.Ambedkar was the first Indian in Asia to receive a Doctorate in Economics ?
  5. తెలంగాణ ప్రభుత్వం Dr.B.R.Ambedkar 125 వ జయంతి సందర్భంగా,దేశంలో అతి పొడవైన 125 అడుగుల ఎత్తు గల Ambedkar విగ్రహాన్ని Hyderabad లో ప్రతిష్టిoచబోతున్నారు. మీకేమైనా తెలుసా?
    Do you have any idea that the Government of Telangana is going to install 125 feet bronze statue of Dr.B.R.Ambedkar, the tallest in the country, in commemoration of his 125th birth anniversary?

General Common Errors

  1. Incorrect : We must and should attend the spoken English class.
    Correct : We must attend the spoken English class.
  2. Incorrect : Kishore entered into the auditorium.
    Correct : Kishore entered the auditorium.
  3. Incorrect:  Please return back my book after you read.
    Correct: Please return my book after you read.
  4. Incorrect : My school childrens performed well in the programme.
    Correct : My school children performed well in the programme.
  5. Incorrect : Where you have been all these days?
    Correct : Where have you been all these days?

SPOKEN ENGLISH SUNDAY SPECIAL-III DAY-23 (17-4-2021)

  1. శ్రీదేవి…మా అమ్మా,నాన్న వాళ్ళు ఈ రోజు మనింటికి వస్తానన్నారు,బయలు దేరారో,లేదో ఒకసారి ఫోన్ చేసి కనుక్కో?
    Sridevi…My parents are visiting us today. Just call them and find out whether they have started or not?
  2. School కి వేసవి సెలవులు ఇచ్చారు కావున మన అమ్మాయిని swimming నేర్చుకోవడానికి పంపిద్దామా?
    As school has declared summer vacation, shall we send our daughter to learn swimming?
  3. పొద్దున్నే లేచి వాకింగ్ కి వేల్దామనుకుoటే కుదరట్లేదు?
    I always think of going for a morning walk. Some how I am unable to make it.
  4. మన ఫ్రిజ్  పాడయిoది. దానిని repair చేయించాలి?
    Our fridge isn’t  working. We must get it repaired.
  5. ఏవండీ…ఊపిరి సినిమా బాగుందట,ఈ రోజు సాయంత్రం వెళ్దామా?
    Oh my dear…I have heared that oopiri movie is excellent . Shall we go for it in the evening?

General Common Errors

  1. Incorrect :How many children you have?
    Correct :  How many children do you have?
  2. Incorrect : One of my friend lives in Karimnagar.
    Correct :  One of my friends lives in Karimnagar.
  3. Incorrect:  l love listening music.
    Correct: I love listening to music.
  4. Incorrect : Venu drives his bike very fast.
    Correct : Venu rides his bike very fast.
  5. Incorrect : The patient felt more better after taking the medicine.
    Correct : The patient felt much better after taking the medicine.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-30(24-4-2021)
TENSES DAY-7
We have been observing the sentence structure of Various tense forms under  Present Tense for a week.
1.1 Simple Present
1.2 Present Continuous
1.3 Present Perfect
1.4 Present Perfect Continuous.

Now let us recollect the structural changes of each form with examples.
1.1 Simple Present
(Positive):
He speaks English regularly.

(Negative):
He doesn’t speak English regularly.

(Interrogative):
Does he speak English regularly?

1.2 Present Continuous
(Positive)
He is speaking English now.

(Negative)
He is not speaking English now.

(Interrogative)
Is he speaking English now?

1.3 Present Perfect:
(Positive)
He has spoken English just now.

(Negative)
He has not spoken English just now.

(Interrogative)
Has he spoken English just now?

1.4 Present Perfect Continuous:
(Positive)
He has been speaking English for one month.

(Negative)
He has not been speaking English for one month.

(Interrogative)
Has he been speaking English for one month?

Home work:
Practice writing these sentence in all forms of the present tense you have observed.

  1. They play cricket regularly.
  2. Latha drinks five glasses of water everyday.
  3. I meet my friends very often.

VOCABULARY

  1. Ensuing =following ( తదనంతరం  వచ్చు/ వెంబడించు
    Ensuing the sudden demise of his father, Akbar came to the throne at a very young age.
  2. Inculcate = to fix through repeated effort ( ప్రయత్నపూర్వకంగా నెలకొల్పు )
    Teachers should inculcate hygienic eating habits among students during MDM
  3. Erstwhile = former (గత/ ఇంతకు పూర్వపు)
    The school was inaugurated by the erstwhile education minister.
  4. Hail from = to have as one’s place of birth / residence.( ప్రదేశానికి చెందిన )
    Most of the brick industry labourers hail from Orissa.
  5. Threat = an indication or warning of probable trouble. ( హెచ్చరిక )
    The authorities evacuated the people in low lying areas due to the threat of floods.

VERB FORMS(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
    V1      V2      V3

  1. Hurt – hurt  – hurt
    (‘hurted’ is a wrong usage)
  2. Cost- cost  -cost
    (‘costed’ is a wrong usage)
  3. hit  –  hit  –   hit
  4. shut -shut – shut
  5. Put-  put  –  put
  6. cut – cut  – cut

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-29 (23-4-2021)

  1. వేణు సార్…PS,UPS schools లో mid day meals  teacher రోటేషన్ విషయంలో ఏమైనా క్లారిటీ వచ్చిందా?
    Mr.Venu…Have you got any clarity about  rotation  of teachers duties for mid day meals in PS and UP schools?
  2. రఘు సార్…నిన్న మీరు ఉదయం rally తీసారా?
    Mr.Raghu..Did you take out a rally yesterday morning ?
  3. గోపీ సార్…summer లో mid day meals 8:30 నుండి 10:00 గంటల వరకు మారిన విషయం మీకు తెలుసా?
    Mr.Gopi…Do you know that the timings of the mid day meals in summer have changed from 8.30 am to 10.00am?
  4. Suresh సార్…mid day meals పర్యవేక్షణలో భాగంగా MEO సార్ మీ school కి ఏమైనా  వచ్చారా?
    Mr.Suresh…Has MEO visited your school as part of mid day meals inspection?
  5. శేషు సార్…మీ school లో 8:30am నుండి 10 amవరకు ఏమేమి academic activities చేయిస్తున్నారు?
    Mr.Seshu…what academic activities are you conducting in your school from 8.30am to 10.00 am?

TENSES DAY-6

  1. 4 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
    This tense refers to an action/ work started in the past and is still incomplete or is still going on.

Note: In this we use

  1. Has /have as helping verbs
  2. been
  3. V 1+ing.
    4..we use time frame like:
    Since / for

Let’s learn to use Since/for
Since :for point of time.
For eg: Since Monday
Since 2 pm
Since 1985

For : Period of time
For eg: for a week
For 20 days
For an hour
For 18 years

Structure
Positive
Subject +has/have+ been +V1ing +Object.

Negative
Subject + hasn’t /haven’t + been +V1ing +Object.
Questions :
Have/has+ subject+ been+ V1ing + Object.

Eg:

  1. I have been playing cricket for 10 years/ since 2006
  2. We have been learning English through whats App for 27 days
  3. He has been working at Infosys for 2 years/ since 2014.
  4. I haven’t been shopping online since the time I received a faulty product.
  5. They haven’t been organising a tournament for 2 years.
  6. How long have you been staying in Hyderabad?
    7.Why have you  been visiting Delhi so often?

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-28 (22-4-2021)

  1. రాజు సార్,ఈ summer లో ఇంతమంది పిల్లలు mid day meals తినడానికి వస్తారనుకోలేదు, ఈ రోజు చాలామంది పిల్లలు వచ్చారు.
    Mr.Raju, I didn’t expect these many children to turn up to have mid day meals in this summer. There was a huge turnout today
  2. అవునా సార్, మా school లో నిన్నటికంటే ఈవాళ కొంచెం ఎక్కువమంది పిల్లలు  వచ్చారు.
    Oh really Sir! The attendance in my school was slightly better today than yesterday.
  3. నిన్న మీ HM గారి retirement function ఎలా జరిగింది?
    How did the retirement function of your HM go, yesterday?
  4. బ్రహ్మాండంగా జరిగింది సార్,చాలామంది వచ్చారు.
    It went on very well. There was a huge gathering.
  5. ఈ రోజుతో మా spot valuation అయిపోతుంది. ఈ సారి Results పెరగవచ్చుఅని అందరూ అనుకుంటున్నారు
    The Spot valuation camp is coming  to an end today. Everyone is expecting that the pass percentage  would increase this time.

TENSES DAY-5
1.3 PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Application :
This tense is used to indicate

  1. Action completed in the past and has connection to help present.
  2. Recently completed actions.
  3. Just now completed actions.
  4. Action that has not happened till now.

Examples:

  1. I have completed B.tech
  2. The Govt. Of Telangana has decided to provide mid day meals to the school students during summer vaction in the drought prone districts recently.
  3. I have completed my class just now.

Grammar focus:

  1. We use ‘have /has’ as helping verb.
  2. Third form of verb (V3) is used.

Note:

  1. In this tense, we don’t use specific time in the past like Yesterday, the day before yesterday, last year , in 1995 etc.
  2. We use unspecified time in the past like Recently, just now, never, ever, before, till now, still, lately, yet……

Sentence Structure :
Positive
Subject +has/have + V3+ Object.

Negative
Subject+ hasn’t /haven’t +V3+Object.
       _ I            | We        |  have/haven’t You       | They |
      _ He       | She      |   has / hasn’t It     |

Example:

  1. I have joined a course recently.
  2. He has realised his mistake lately.
  3. Legislators have adopted a village recently.
  4. I haven’t received any invitation yet.
  5. She hasn’t worked here before.
  6. The train hasn’t reached the platform yet.

Questions
Has/Have +Subject + V3+ Object?

Has he played cricket?
Have you had your breakfast?
Have they completed their project?

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-27 (21-4-2021)

  1. శ్రీను సార్,మీ school లో నిన్న ఎంతమంది mid day meals తిన్నారు?
    Srinu Sir,  How many children had mid day meals in your school yesterday?
  2. మొదటిరోజు కావున కొంచెం తక్కువమంది పిల్లలే వచ్చారు.
    Since it was the first day,few children turned up.
  3. ఈ రోజు ఉదయం పిల్లలతో,అంగన్ వాడీ కార్యకర్తలతో,సర్పంచ్,SMC చైర్మెన్ తో rally మరియు టాo..టాo.. కార్యక్రమం చేద్దామని అనుకుంటున్నాo.
    We are thinking of  conducting  a rally and Tam Tam programme along with children,Aganwadi  Volunteers, Sarpanch and SMC chairman this morning.
  4. బావుంటుoది సార్,ఈ విధంగా ఎక్కువ publicity చేస్తే తప్పకుండా అందరూ వచ్చి mid day meals తింటారు.
    It will definitely work if this sort/ kind of publicity is given as more children will have mid day meals.
  5. మా school లో projector ద్వారా మంచి కధలు,పద్యాలు,దేశభక్తి సినిమాలు పిల్లలకు చూపిస్తున్నాo,ఈ విధంగా చేయడం వల్ల చాలామంది పిల్లలు వస్తున్నారు.
    We are using a projector in our school to screen stories with a moral(fables),poems and patriotic movies for students. Many students are attending school due to this.

TENSES- Day 4
1.2 PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE.
Application:
This tense is used to indicate actions that are in progress.
(Remember that the actions indicated in this tense are temporary or for a short while.)

Key words:
these days , now-a-days, now, at this moment. …….
(Note: We should not use expressions like  Everyday every month Regularly….)

Grammar focus

  1. Usage of be  forms in present
    Is /am/ are
  2. Continuous form of verb

Example:
play + ing = playing learn + ing = learning    teach + ing = teaching

Sentence structure 
Positive:
Subject + is/am/ are +  V1ing + Object.
Ex:

  1. I am attending spot valuation camp these days.
  2. Our Government is reviewing the education system these days.
  3. She is watching television now.

Negative structure: 
Subject +is/am/are +not + V1ing +Object
Ex:

  1. I am not hitting the gym these days.
  2. They are not  listening to the lecture.
  3. He is not paying attention to his work now-a-days.

Questions 
Is/are +subject + V1ing + Object.
Ex:
Is he preparing for civil services?

Are you working on  java these days?

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-26 (20-4-2021)

  1. రవి మీ friends అందరికీ ప్రతిరోజు ఉదయం 8:30 ని!!లకు school కి రమ్మని చెప్పు.
    Ravi, Inform all your friends to come to school daily at 8.30am.
  2. పిల్లలు,మీరందరూ ప్రతిరోజు school కి ఉదయం 8:30 ని!! వచ్చి 10:30 భోజనం చేసి పోవాలె.
    Children, you should all report to school at 8.30 am.  Have lunch at 10.30 and return home.
  3. శ్రీను మీ friend వేణు ఈ రోజు school కి రాలేదు,ఎటుపోయిండు?
    Srinu, your friend, Venu hasn’t come to the school today. Where has he gone?
  4. మల్లమ్మ ఈ రోజు ఏం కూర వండుతున్నవ్?
    Which curry are you  preparing today malamma?
  5. కిరణ్ సార్,DEO సార్ కి ఈ రోజు Mid day meals వివరాల message పంపించినవా?లేదా?
    Kiran Sir,Have you sent the report of today’s Mid day meals by message to DEO or not?

TENSES DAY-3

  1. Simple Present tense is also used to indicate position, Status.
  2. We also  use it to describe people,places and things in present.

Here we use ‘be’ forms in present tense
Be forms in the present tense are:
is  am  are

Sentence structure
Sub + is /am  / are + Object.
I ………      am
          _ You…..     | We…..      |   are They… |
         _ He ….     | She….     |     is It ….. _|

Example:

  1. I am a teacher of English.
  2. You are a workaholic person.
  3. We are Indians
  4. Our neighbours are very friendly but they are nosy.
  5. Ramu is my student. He is intelligent.
  6. My mother is very caring. She is good at cooking.
  7. Hyderabad is a beautiful city.  It is also a happening city.

Negative Statement
Sentence structure:
Sub + is /am  / are + not+  Object.

I ……..   am not
             _ You…..     | We…..      |are not/ aren’t They.   |          
He ……   |
She….     | is not / isn’t
It….    __|

Example:

  1. I am not a couch potato.
  2. You aren’t regular to classes.
  3. We aren’t insensitive.
  4. They aren’t systematic at their work.
  5. He isn’t very tall.
  6. She isn’t as clever as her sister.
  7. Hyderabad is not an  expensive city.

Questions :
Is /are +subject + Object?

Example:
Is he a lawyer?
Is she beautiful?
Are you a graduate?
Are they NRIs?

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-25 (19-4-2021)

  1. ఈ వేసవి సెలవుల్లో school కి వెళితే ELs వస్తయా?
    Will we get ELs, if we go to school during summer vacation?
  2. ఈ వేసవి సెలవుల్లో పిల్లలకు భొజనం ఎన్ని గంటలకు పెడతరు?
    At what time will children be served Mid day Meals   during this summer vacation?
  3. పిల్లలను,school కి ఎన్ని గంటలకు రమ్మనాలె?
    At what time should we ask children to come to school?
  4. ఉదయం 8:30 నుండి 10:30 వరకు పిల్లలకు academic activities చెప్పాలి.
    We should conduct academic activities for children from 8.30am to 10.30 am
  5. Rotation పద్దతిలో టీచర్లను ఎలా ఎంపికచేస్తరు?
    How will the teachers be  selected on rotation basis?
  6. Summer Holidays లో ఆదివారాలు,పండుగలు మొదలగు public holidays లో కూడా పిల్లలకు భోజనం పెడతారు.
    During summer holidays…Children will be served mid day meals on public holidays like sundays and festivals also.

TENSES Day 2:
Yesterday we have seen the sentence structure of statements in Simple Present Tense.
Today let us observe the other forms of simple present : Negative & interrogative.

Negative Sentence 
Usage: don’t  & doesn’t

Sentence Structure:
        _ I            | We        | + don’t + V1 + object+time frame.
You       |
They    __|

Examples:

  1. I don’t miss my classes anytime.
  2. We don’t play pranks on others.
  3. You don’t listen to the music.
  4. They don’t speak French at home.

Sentence Structure:
      _ He       | + doesn’t +V1 + object+ time frame
She      |
It    _|

Examples:

  1. He doesn’t miss his classes anytime.
  2. She doesn’t eat non- vegetarian food.
  3. Sara has a pet dog. It doesn’t bite anyone.

Interrogative sentences (Questions)
Structure:
Do + Subject (You /  They) + Object  ?
Examples:
1.Do you play the guitar?
2.Do they submit their project work  in time?

Structure:
Does + subject (He/She/It)+ Object?
Examples:
1.Does he play  football?

  1. Does your mother work anywhere?
  2. Does she prepare Biryani?
  3.  Does your bike run smoothly?

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-24 (18-4-2021)

  1. పిల్లలు…మీలో ఎంతమంది వేసవి సెలవుల్లో Mid day meals తినడానికి school కి వస్తారు?
    Children…How many of you will come to the school to have mid day meals during summer vacation?
  2. పిల్లలు…ఈ Pen ఎవరిది?
    Children…whose pen is this?
  3. కిరణ్…నీ బెంచ్ క్రింద వున్న పేపర్ ని తీసి dust bin లో వెయ్యి.
    Kiran…please pickup the paper which is under your desk and throw it in the dustbin.
  4. యాదగిరి…నీకు ఎంతమంది పిల్లలు?
    Yadagiri…How many children do you have?
  5. వర్షం పడుతుంది.
    It is raining.

TENSES
What is tense?
Tense tells us time of an action.

Types of tenses 

  1. Present tense
  2. Past tense
  3. Future tense

Present block
Present tense is further classified as
1.1 Simple Present
1.2 Present continuous
1.3 Present perfect
1.4 Present Perfect Continuous
Let us understand  Simple Present

Application:
To be able to talk about

  1. Our Routines
  2. Regular Actions
  3. Likes and dislikes
  4. Job responsibilities

Examples:

  1. I go for a morning walk.
  2. We go to hill station every summer.
  3. I like chocolates very much.
  4. He motivates his students very well.

Sentence structure
Positive sentence :
I.  
      __ I            | We       |              |– + V1+Object+You+ time frame. They |

Eg: 1. I submit  my lesson plans on time.
       2. We play cricket every Sunday.
       3. They visit their grandparents once in a year.
       4. You walk 200mts, then turn right.

II.
        _ He.     |  +V1(s, es, ies)+ object + time frame She    |– It     _|
   
Examples.

  1. He submits his lesson plans on time.
  2. He plays cricket every Sunday.
  3. She visits her grand parents once in a year.
  4. The train arrives at 7am and leaves at 7.15 am.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-33(27-4-2021)
TENSES DAY-10
Simple Past Tense cont’d. …

Simple Past Tense is also used to

  • Describe people, places and things in the past.
  • Here we use ‘be’ forms in past tense
    Be forms in the past  tense are:
    Was , Were

Sentence structure:
Sub + was/were + Object.
       _ I ……..  | He ….   | She….   |   was It …. |
        __ You….. …| We……. ..|  were They..    |

Example:

  1. I was studious in my school days.
  2. He was sincere to his work earlier.
  3. She was extremely shy and introvert a few years ago.
  4. I was dead on my feet(very tired) after a very hectic day.

Negative sentence:
Sentence structure
Sub + was/were + not+  Object.

        _
You  ……|
We…  ….| were not /
They..    _|  weren’t

          _ I  ……….| He ..    ….|  was not / She…..     |  wasn’t It ….    |

Example:

  1. I wasn’t married 5 years ago.
  2. He wasn’t well yesterday.
  3. We weren’t familiar with the place.
  4. They weren’t regular       to the classes.
  5. He wasn’t very tall.
  6. The flower vase was broken. But it wasn’t my fault.
  7. My village wasn’t developed till last year.

Questions :
Structure:
Was/were +subject + Object?

Example:
Was he the topper of the class?
Was she a popular singer?
Were the mangoes sweet?

VOCABULARY

  1. Although  = (used as a conjunction / linker) in spite of (ఐనప్పటికీ /ఐతే)
    Although he was a mathematics teacher, he taught english well.
  2. Altogether  = entirely/completely  (పూర్తిగా / మొత్తముగా   )
    Our picnic was altogether spoiled by the rain.
  3. Abandon = give up /forsake/leave  (పూర్తి గా వదిలి వేయు/ పరిత్యజించిన)
    Now a days most of the elderly people are being abandoned by their children.
  4. Adapt= to adjust(స్వీకరించు / కొత్త పరిస్తితులకు అనువుగా వుండు )
    Murali quickly adapted himself to his new school.
  5. Adopt =  to accept and use ( అనుసరించి /అమలు చేయు / దత్తత )
    All the teachers have adopted the DEO s proposal to speak English in their day to day life.

VERB FORMS
(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
       V1       V2       V3

  1. fly   –   flew  – flown
  2. swim-swam-swum
  3. ring  –  rang  – rung
  4. break-broke-broken
  5. run – ran – run

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-32 (26-4-2021)
TENSES DAY-9
We all know that ‘Good learning starts with questions. As teachers we use questions very often. In this regard we should be aware of using the questions in the right form. Let us observe

wh- questions in simple past:
Usage —– Purpose
What (ఎమిటి )……Information
When (ఎప్పుడు )……Time
Where (ఎక్కడ )……place
Why (ఎందుకు )…….reason
Which (ఏ / ఏది )…choice
Who.(ఎవరు )……identity of a Person
How (ఎలా )…..method/   process
How long (ఎంత  కాలము )…..duration
How far (ఎంత  దూరం )……distance
How much (ఎంత )..quantity
How many(ఎన్ని )….number

Eg:

  1. What did you do last Sunday?
     (నీవు  గత ఆదివారం ఏమి చేసావు ?)
  2. When did you submit your documents?
    (నీ పత్రాలను నీవు ఎప్పుడు  అప్పచెప్పావు ? )
  3. Why did you get less marks in Intermediate?
    (ఇంటర్మీడియేట్  లో నీకు ఎందుకు తక్కువ మార్కులు  వచ్చాయి?)
  4. where did you get this book from?
    (ఈ పుస్తకము నీకు ఎక్కడ నుంచి దొరికింది ?)
  5. Which restaurant did you go to last week?
    (నీవు  గత వారము ఏ  రెస్టారెంట్  కి వెళ్ళావు ?)
  6. Who did you meet at the railway station?
    (నీవు  రైల్వే స్టేషన్  లో ఎవరిని కలిసావు ?)
  7. How did you find the seminar?
    (నీకు సెమినార్ ఎలా అనిపించింది ?)
  8. How long did you watch television yesterday?
    (నీవు నిన్న TV ఎంత సేపు  చూసావు ?)
  9. How far did they go?
    (వారు ఎంత దూరము వెళ్లారు ?)
  10. How much did you pay for the course?
    (ఆ  కోర్స్  కొరకు  నీవు ఎంత పైకము చెల్లిoచావు ?)
  11. How many times did you watch Oopiri movie..?
    (నీవు  ఊపిరి movie ఎన్నిసార్లు చూసావు?)

VOCABULARY

  1. Revoke =  to withdraw / cancel officially (రద్దుచేయు/ఉపసంహరించు)
    The government  has revoked its  decision of hike in the petrol price.
  2. Avert = to prevent something bad from happening.  (తప్పించు / మరల్చు  )
    A disaster in the coastal area was narrowly averted by the officials.
  3. Augment =  to increase / make bigger (వృద్ధిచేయు/ పెంచు  )
    Mahesh will have to find work to augment his income.
  4. Auction = వేలము
    Venu got the royal watch for two lakhs in an auction.
  5. Action =  act done  by someone ( చేసిన పని  )
    The problem of sanitation in schools needs an immediate action by the government.

VERB FORMS
(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
       V1      V2      V3

  1. spread – spread – spread
  2. hear- heard – heard
  3. grow-grew-grown
  4. become -became -become
  5. Swear-Swore-Sworn

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-31(25-4-2021)
In the previous week, we learnt PRESENT BLOCK

This week ,we would learn PAST TENSE BLOCK
PAST TENSE is further classified as
2.1 Simple Past
2.2 Past Continuous
2.3 Past Perfect
2.4 Past Perfect Continuous

2.1 SIMPLE PAST TENSE
Definition: In this tense we talk about actions that are complete or over..

Key words :
yesterday, the day before, 5 days ago,  6 weeks ago, 10 mins ago, in 1995,   in 2008, in January 2021, last week, last year, the previous month, last time, last birthday  etc….

Grammar focus :
In this tense we use Second form of the verb. ( past form V2)

Sentence structure :
Positive sentence
Subject +V2 +Object +time frame.
Example:

  1. I attended a seminar yesterday.
  2. We finished the spot valuation camp day before yesterday.
  3. They submitted a proposal to the DEO on 23rd March 2021.
  4. He attended a party last week.

Note:

  1. Unlike present tense same form (past tense) of the verb is used for all persons (I, We, They,  You,  He, She, It )
  2. Past form of the regular verbs is formed by adding ‘-ed’.
  3. Past form of the irregular verbs vary. So the past form of such verbs must be learnt.

Negative structure:
Subject +didn’t +V1+Object + time frame.
Eg:

  1. I didn’t visit my grand parents last week.
  2. We didn’t apply for the scholarship last year.
  3. They didn’t come to Hyderabad by train.

Note :
In negative sentence
We use
‘did’+ V1
Because ‘did’ is the past form of the verb.

It is incorrect to say

  1. I didn’t went to the party last week
  2. I didn’t played cricket yesterday.

Rather it should be

  1. I didn’t go to the party last week.
  2. I didn’t play cricket yesterday.

Question structure:
Did +subject +V1+ Object +time frame?
For example:

  1. Did you submit your lesson plan?
  2. Did DEO sir give any special instructions for academic activities during summer classes?
  3. Did Pavan score 10 /10 GPA ?

VOCABULARY

  1. Provoke =  stimulate to do (రేకెత్తించే )
    Don’t  provoke the dog or it may bite you.
  2. Exceed =go beyond (అధిగమిన్చు )
    Our profits in the first year of business actually exceeded our expectations.
  3. Rumours = fake information  (పుకార్లు )
    There are rumours that Rajmouli is making Bahubali 3.
  4. Expedite = speed up  ( వేగవంతంచేయు  )
    We need to expedite our learning of English to get fluency by June.
  5. Mania = intense craze. ( వ్యామోహం  )
    All the primary school  teachers have been gripped by spoken english mania for a month.

VERB FORMS
(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
       V1      V2      V3

  1. Spend-Spent-Spent
  2. Meet – Met – Met
  3. Build -Built – Built
  4. Learn-Learnt-Learnt
  5. Keep – Kept – Kept

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-37(01-05-2021)
TENSES DAY-14
We have been observing the sentence structure of Various tense forms under  Past Tense for a week.

2.1 Simple Past
2.2 Past Continuous
2.3 Past  Perfect
2.4 Past Perfect Continuous.

Now let us recollect the structural changes of each form with examples.
2.1 Simple Past.
(Positive)
He played cricket yesterday.
(Negative)
He didn’t  play cricket yesterday .
(Interrogative):
Did he play cricket yesterday?

2.2 Past Continuous
(Positive)
He was playing  cricket .
(Negative)
He wasn’t playing cricket.
(Interrogative)
Was he playing cricket?

2.3 Past Perfect:
(Positive)
He had played cricket.
(Negative)
He had not played cricket .
(Interrogative)
Had he played cricket?

2.4 Past  Perfect Continuous:
(Positive)
He had been playing cricket since 2009 .
(Negative)
He hadnot been playing cricket since 2009
(Interrogative)
Had he been playing cricket since 2009?

Home work:
Practice writing these sentence in all forms of the past tense you have observed.

  1. They attended a wedding  last week.
  2. He completed his home work yesterday.
  3. I met my childhood friends last year.

VOCABULARY

  1.  extinction – అంతరించు / నిర్మూలించబడు
    Global warming resulted in extinction of many species of the earth.
  2.  extension – పొడిగించు /విస్తరించు
    Mr.Murthy requested his boss for an extension of one week leave.

3.Across- అంతట
It has been planned to introduce English medium in primary schools across Telangana State.

4.Adequate – తగినంత
Providing adequate facilities in Schools would surely increase enrollment in government schools.

  1. Against- వ్యతిరేకంగా
    It’s our duty to fight against the cutting down of trees.

VERB FORMS
(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
       V1       V2       V3

  1. lend –  lent-  lent
  2. find -found  – found
  3. shine-shone-shone
  4. tell- told – told
  5. understand  -understood  – understood

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-36(30-4-2021)
TENSES DAY-13
We have learnt past perfect tense yesterday. Today lets observe  past perfect continuous tense.

2.4 PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Definition: This tense is used to talk about actions or situations that were in progress before some other action or situation.

Grammar focus:
In this tense we use
Had + Been + V1+ing + object

Sentence structure:
Positive:
Subject + had + been +V1+ing +Object.

Negative:
Subject + hadn’t been + V1ing +Object.

For Eg:

  1. The boys had been quarrelling for half an hour when teacher entered the class.
  2. He had been waiting there for more than two hours when he finally arrived.
  3. The road was wet because it had been raining.
  4. I hadn’t been feeling well,so i sent him away.
  5. Harsha hadn’t been expecting a positive answer when he got a job.
  6. She hadn’t been playing chess since 7 o’clock

Question structure:
Had + subject + been + V1ing + object?

Eg:

  1. Had he been playing cricket for an hour?
  2. Had it been raining for 3 days?
  3. How long had he been driving before the accident occured?

VOCABULARY
1.Annoyed:slightly angry or irritate
The Chief Minister of Telangana was annoyed with the private educational institutions for their decision to boycott TET & EAMCET

2.Put off :To post pone
Our Honourable CM took a decision to put off TET & EAMCET for some time.

3.Hype-intensive publicity
All the parties hyped their campaigning for the forthcoming elections.

  1. Deadlock- ప్రతిష్టంబన
    The deadlock between the national parties ended after the general election

5.Abuse – speak in an insulting way.
Mohan was punished for abusing his neighbour.

6.Accused- charge of a crime (ముద్దాయి)
The accused was presented in the court for the hearing.

VERB FORMS
(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
      V1       V2       V3

  1. fall  –  fell –   fallen
  2. get –  got – got
  3. fight-fought-fought
  4. drink- drank-drunk
  5. say  – said – said

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-35 (29-4-2021)
TENSES DAY-12
Let us observe the expression used in the past perfect tense.

2.3 PAST PERFECT TENSE 
The past perfect tense is most often used for the following :
A) For actions that happened before a past events.
B) In reported speech (Indirect Speech)
C) In conditional ( if ) sentences.

Grammar focus :
In this tense we use

  1. Had (past form of has / have)
    2 third form of the verb (V3)

Sentence Structure :
Positive:
Subject + had + V3+Object.

Negative
Subject +hadn’t + V3 + Object.
A) For actions that happenend before a past event:

Eg:

  1. When I got home yesterday, my mother had already cooked dinner.
  2. I didn’t go for the movie with my friends because I had already seen it.
  3. The students had gone home before the teacher arrived.
  4. The meeting had already begun before we reached there.
  5. Key words: already, just, never, before etc are used with past perfect.

B) In reported speech:
The past perfect is commonly used when we report people’s exact words or thoughts

Eg:

  1. He said that he had joined a course.
  2. Mary informed that she hadn’t submitted the question paper.
  3. I thought I had sent her the birthday card, but I was wrong.

C) In conditional (If) sentences.
The past perfect is used in unreal situation like:

  1. If I had known you were in Hyderabad, I would have called you.
  2. If I had had enough time, I would have completed the project work.
    (Usage of ‘had had’- the first had refers to the time frame- perfective. The second had refers to possession)
  3. If you hadn’t helped me , I wouldn’t have finished the task.

Questions:
Structure:
Had + Subject + V3+ Object?

  1. Had they visited a doctor ?
  2. Had it rained cats and dogs last night?
  3. Had the film started before you reached?

Idiom:
Meaning

  1. raining cats and dogs= raining very heavily
    It had rained cats and dogs last night.

VOCABULARY

  1. Break in/ into – entered forcibly – చొచ్చుకునిపోవు
    The robbers  broke into  the house and stole the jewellery.
    The robbers broke in through the window and stole the jewllery.
  2. Obliged – indebted రుణపడివుండు
    I shall be obliged if you consider my application of mutual transfer.
  3. Widespread – విస్తృతం
    Widespread campaigning of the introduction of English medium in primary schools is essential to increase enrollment.
  4. Memorandum – విజ్ఞాపనము
    Several private schools have submitted a memorandum  to the goverment regarding the usage of textbooks at primary  level.
  5. Symptom- లక్షణం
    High body temperature, rapid breathing and headache are the symptoms of heat stroke.

VERB FORMS
(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
       V1       V2       V3

  1. pay –  paid  – paid
  2. ride  – rode – ridden
  3. light  –  lit   –  lit
  4. wake -woke-woken
  5. stand-stood-stood

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-34 (28-4-2021)
TENSES DAY-11
We have observed the usage of Simple past tense yesterday. Today let us see the past continuous usage.

2.2 PAST CONTINUOUS:
Definition : This tense is used to express a continued action or ongoing action at certain time in the past.

Grammar focus: 
In this tense

  1. Auxiliary Verb – ‘was/were’ used
  2. V1+ ing form is used
    Eg:
    Play + ing = playing
    Do + ing = doing

Sentence Structure:
positive :
Subject + was/were + V1ing + Object

Eg:

  1. The children were doing their homework when I got home.
  2. When I was preparing my lesson the telephone rang.
  3. I was practising Spoken English sentences.
  4. Her English was improving.

Negative structure:
Subject +was/were not + V1ing +Object

Eg:

  1. She wasn’t paying attention to the class.
  2. They weren’t climbing the hill.
  3. I wasn’t  watching television yesterday at this time.

Question 
Was/Were + subject + V1ing +Object.
1.Was she paying attention to the class?

  1. Were you watching television at this time yesterday?
  2. Were they climbing the hill during the snow fall?

VOCABULARY

  1. Distinguish  = to recognise the difference (వేరుచేయు / తేడాను గమనించు )
    Rohan was distinguished from the other boys by his talent in mathematics.

2.By and large  = usually / on the whole  (సుమారుగా/సాధారణముగా)
By and large, the question papers for SSC were easy.

3.Pull off  =  to succeed  in difficulties /  to carry out in spite of difficulties.(కష్టమైన  పరిస్థితిలోనూ సాధించుట)
West Indies pulled off a surprise victory over England in the  20-20 World Cup final.

4.Water harvesting pit=(ఇంకుడు గుంత )
To increase the ground water levels in our Telangana state Let’s pledge to construct a rain water harvesting pit in every house hold.

  1. Beneath = దిగువబాగాన /అడుగున/ క్రింద)
    They sat beneath a huge mango tree  to relax for sometime.

VERB FORMS
(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
       V1       V2       V3

  1. wear- wore – worn
  2. shoot – shot – shot
  3. feel –  felt  – felt
  4. mean -meant -meant
  5. show -showed-shown

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-40 (04-05-2021)
TENSES DAY-17
Today let us see the  usage of ‘going to’ in the simple future tense

GOING TO
We use “going to” to indicate

  1. Pre planned actions.
    Action decided in the past to happen on the future.
  2. Predictions
    predictions based on the evidence in the present.

In this structure, we use

  1. Be forms ( is / am / are)
  2. Going to
  3. V1 (First form of the verb)

Sentence structure:
Positive
Subject + is/am/are + going to + V1 + Object.

Negative
Subject + is/am/are +not +going to + V1 + Object.

Question
Are/Is  + subject +going to + V1ing + Object?

Eg:
Preplanned actions

  1. The schools are going to re open on 13th June 2021.
  2. He is going to buy a flat from his provident fund.
  3. I am not going to miss my classes next year.
  4. Is he going to teach in English from this June?

Predictions:

  1. Look out ! The glass is going to fall off.
  2. The sky is dark. It’s going to rain
  3. It’s 5.30 ! You’re going to miss the flight.
  4. Look at the queue. We are not going to get  tickets for this show.
    5 Are you going to attend the teleconference ?

VOCABULARY

  1. Decline =
    a) politely refuse an invitation or offer సవినయంగా  తిరస్కరించు
    b)lower in number   నెమ్మదిగా  క్షీణించు
    a) She declined the job offer politely as the pay was less.
    b) The number of unrecognised schools have declined in the state.
    ( decline – declined)
  2. Defeat =Get victory over someone ఓటమి/ఓడించు
    Indian cricket team defeated England to reach the semifinal.
    (defeat – defeated)
  3. Deforestation= clearing /removing of forests( అడవుల నిర్మూలన)
    Mr. Bahuguna led the Chipko movement to stop deforestation.
     (lead – led- led)
  4. Reforestation = establishment of forests in the land which had recent tree cover.అడవులను తిరిగి పెంచడం
    The forest department took up reforestation after it was damaged by fire.
    (damage- damaged)

5.Afforestation: establishment  of forests on a clear land.( అటవీకరణ )
Afforestation is the need of the hour through out the world.
(need – needed)
Idiom – ‘need of the hour’- తక్షణ అవసరం

  1. Desperate =Having a great need or desire for something.( అమితమైన నిరాశకులోను సాధించాలి అనే తపన)
    The unemployed youth was desperate to find a job
    ( find  – found – found)

VERB FORMS
(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
       V1       V2       V3

  1. bleed – bled- bled
  2. feed  – fed – fed
  3. forgive-forgave-forgiven
  4. lead- led- led
  5. stick- stuck- stuck

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-38(02-05-2021)
TENSES DAY-15
Dear friends,
We have learnt Present and Past tenses till now.
It’s time for us to look at Future Block in detail.

  1. FUTURE BLOCK
    Future block is also  classified as

3.1 Simple Future.
3.2 Future Continuous
3.3 Future Perfect
3.4 Future Perfect Continuous.

3.1 SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
Definition : It is used to talk about an action which has not occured yet and will  occur in future.
                 Or
To talk about actions in the future time

APPLICATION:
To be able to express our plans and goals.

Key Words: 
Tomorrow
The day after tomorrow
Next year, next month, next week, next decade, next class…………..
After 5 days, after a month, after some time……
In 2017, in 2020….
On 10th may 2021…

Grammar focus:
In this tense we use:
1.Will/ Shall

  1. May/might
  2. Going to
  3. First form of the verb (V1)

Sentence Structure :
Positive 
Subject +will +V1 +Object.

Negative 
Subject +will not / won’t + Object.

Eg:

  1. I will buy an air cooler conditioner tomorrow.
  2. She will throw a party  next week.
  3. The Government will not stop the inspection of private educational institutions.
  4. I won’t stay at home if I finish my work.

Note:

  1. In modern English ‘Will’ is often used than ‘Shall’.
  2. ‘Shall’ is only used with subject ‘ I & We’ and not with any other subject.

Eg:

  1. I shall buy an aircooler tomorrow.
  2. We shall go for an outing next weekend.

But it incorrect to use

  1. He shall submit his documents tomorrow.
  2. They shall host an event.

We should say

  1. He will submit his documents tomorrow.
  2. They will host an event next week.

Question Structure :
Will + Subject +V1 +Object?

Note: ‘Wh’ question words can also be used with question structure.

Eg:

  1. Will you come to the function with me?
  2. When will you visit your grand parents?
  3. Will you discuss the plan with all the friends?

In the next session, we shall/ will learn about the usage
“May , Might and going to”
So continue learning…….

VOCABULARY
1.Approximately  =( దాదాపు / సుమారుగా )
In Ranga Reddy district approximately 400 primary schools are going to have English as the medium of instruction.

  1. Injury = a sudden physical damage  (గాయం)
    Sania was injured in the   knee while playing tennis.

3.Honest =(నిజాయితీ  )
We must be fair and honest in all our dealings.

4.Terror= strong feeling of fear(అమితమైన భయం  )
Tsunami created terror among  the people in the coastal areas.

  1. crowd= (సందోహం/ సమూహం  )
    The exhibition is expected to attract large crowds.

VERB FORMS
(Irregular Verbs Vs Regular verbs)
Regular Verbs:
Simple past and perfect  (participle) forms of these verbs are formed by adding  ‘-ed’ to the verb.

Irregular Verbs:
Simple past and perfect forms of the verb do not take ‘-ed’ form. They take different forms as we have been observing for a month.

Some verbs in english can be both regular (-ed) and irregular (-t)
Present-Past/participle
       V1       V2  &  V3

  1. burn-burned/ burnt
  2. dream -dreamt/dreamed
  3. learn-learned/learnt
  4. smell-smelled/smelt

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-39(03-05-2021)
TENSES DAY-16
Simple Future Cont’d…
We have observed Simple Future Tense yesterday. Today let us see some more structures of it.

May and Might
We use the modal verbs
“May and Might ” to talk about
Possible activities or happenings in future:

Sentence structure:
Positive :
Subject + May/Might +V1+ Object.

  1. I may attend a seminar tomorrow.
  2. He might come late.
  3. My friend may come to see us tomorrow.
  4. It may rain tonight.
  5. The dress looks pretty.  It may cost us very high.

Negative:
Subject +May not /Might not +V1 + Object.

  1. I may not come to the class tomorrow.
  2. They might not accept our proposal.
  3. The video conference might not continue till 7 pm.

Now let us  compare “Will – May – Might”
Will :
willingly possible  / definite/ sure to happen  (100%)

May:
Likely to happen / possible to happen / not sure. (50%)

Might:
less likely to happen /  less possibility/ probable (25%)

For eg:

  1. I will come home late.(For sure/definite)
  2. I may come home late. [ Not Sure / Possible]
  3. I might come home late.[Less Possibility / unlikely to happen]

VOCABULARY
1.Boon  =A thing that is helpful or beneficial (వరం)
👉Introduction of English medium in government schools is a boon to students.

  1. Dig =Break up or move earth with a tool. (తవ్వకం )
    ( dig –  dug – dug)
    All the schools in Rangareddy dist must make the arrangements to dig the water harvesting pit on 5.5.16 @9am

3.caught= to hold or to capture ( పట్టుకొను ) (catch-caught-caught)
The police caught the thief red-handed while he was stealing.

  1. Nod = movement of  head in agreement (అంగీకారం తెలుపునట్లు తల ఊపు)
    (Nod – nodded- nodded)
    The doctor asked the patient to nod his head if he understood what he said.
  2. Vanish = Disappear suddenly or completely(అద్రుశ్యమగు )
    ( vanish – vanished-vanished)
    The stain on the shirt refused to vanish inspite of using a strong detergent

VERB FORMS
(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
       V1       V2       V3

  1. cling -clung- clung
  2. broadcast-broadcast – broadcast
  3. kneel-knell-knell
  4. shrink- shrank- shrunk
  5. swear – swore- sworn

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-44(8-5-2021)

Tenses  Day 21
We have observed the usage of Future Perfect Tense
Today let’s see how to use Future Perfect Continuous tense

3.4 FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 
Definition: It is used to express a  continued or ongoing action that will start in future and is thought to be  continued till sometime in future.
(Remember, an ongoing action in future which will continue till some time in future).

Key words:
since 2017 since August 2017 for 3 years ………..
A) It tells that action will start at a particular time in future.
For example,
“My son will have been studying in this school since 2020”,
It means that he will start studying in this school in 2020and will study in this school till sometime in future.

B) It is normally used with a time expression beginning with ‘by’
Example:
By the end of this year he will have been working here for ten years.
Note: In this tense time reference is the future.

Structure of sentence.
Positive Sentence:
Subject + will have been + V1ing + object + time reference

Examples:

  1. I will have been waiting for him for one hour.
  2. She will have been playing football since 2018.
  3. I will have been living in America since 2019.
    4.We will have been driving 6 hours by the time we get there.

Negative Sentence:
Subject + will not have been + V1ing + object +  Time reference

Examples.

  1. By 2020 I will not have been living in London for sixteen years.
  2. When I finish this course, I will not have been learning English for twenty years.
  3. By Next year I will not have been working here for four years.
    4.We will not have been driving 6 hours by the time we get home

Interrogative Sentence:
Will + Subject + have been + V1ing + object + time    reference?
Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “will” and auxiliary verb “have been” is used after subject in sentence.

Examples.

  1. Will I have been waiting for him for one hour?
  2. Will he have been attending the concert  for two hours by then?
  3. Will they have been listening  to the class for 3 hours by then?
  4. Will she have been working in this office since 2018?

PREPOSITIONS:
Prepositions are words normally placed before nouns or pronouns.
They express a relation of the noun/pronoun to other word or clause:
To acquire better expression in English we need to know the usage of each preposition.

Today let us observe
Preposition of Time:

On –
A) It is used to indicate specific date, day of the week or a special day.
Ex:

  1. I will visit my grandparents on Monday.
  2. India gained independence on 15th August 1947.

In – is used with month,  year, part of a day, seasons, certain period of time.
Ex:
1) Gandhiji was born in 1869.
2) We conduct a special camp  for children in summer.
3) I shall go there in an hour.

At – indicates exact  time / certain point of time/ for night/ for weekend.
Ex:
1) She got married at the age of 16.
2) The Taj Mahal looks beautiful at night
3) We would paint the house at the weekend.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-43(7-5-2021)

TENSES DAY-20
We observed Future Continuous Tense.
Let’s see Future Perfect tense  today…..

Future Perfect tense
Definition :
It is used to express an action which will occur in future and is thought to be completed in future.
It expresses a sense of completion

Example, “Raman will have gone tomorrow”.
It shows a sense of completion of an action (go) which will occur in future (tomorrow).

Grammar focus: 
In this we use

  1. Will have
  2. V3 (past participle)

Structure of sentence:
Positive sentence
subject + will have  + V3 + object.

Examples:

  1. She will have finished the work by Wednesday.
  2. They will have left for home by the time  he gets up.
  3. He will have joined  a job.

Negative sentence
Subject + will not have + V3  + Object

Examples

  1. She won’t  have returned from Delhi  by Wednesday.
  2. They will have watched the show by the time I reach home.
  3. I will not have rejected the offer.

Questions: 
Will + Subject +have+ V3 + object ?

Examples:

  1. Will they  have managed to reach there?
  2. Will he have accepted the proposal?
  3. Will she have decorated the hall properly?

VOCABULARY:
1.Esteem =Respect and admiration( ఉన్నత మైన అభిప్రాయం కలిగిఉండు/ గౌరవం/ గౌరవించు)
Dr.Abdul Kalam was held in high esteem by the people of India.
(hold – held – held)

  1. excite= Feel eager and enthusiastic( ఉత్తేజపరుచు / ఉద్రేక పరుచు )
    The students were excited above their results.
    (excite  – excited)
  2. Exceed= Go beyond the limits / to be greater in number or size(  మితిమీరు/ అధిగమించు )
    If our Internet package exceeds the limit,  we need to pay more.
    (exceed– exceeded)
  3. extroverted = An out going and socially active person( బహిర్ముఖుడు)
    Mr.Ramesh is an extrovert and gets on very well with people.
    (extrovert-extroverted)
  4. introvert= a person who is shy and don’t open up easily( అంతర్ముఖుడు  )
    Being an introvert, Kavita doesn’t like going to a loud party.
    (introvert – introverted)
  5. Ambivert: a person whose personality is intermediate between extrovert and introvert.
    I am an ambivert. I’m an extrovert With my friends and introvert with strangers.

VERB FORMS:
(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
       V1       V2       V3

  1. bear – bore- borne
  2. deal- dealt- dealt
  3. grind-ground-ground
  4. sink -sank- sunk
  5. swear -swore-sworn

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-42(6-5-2021)

TENSES DAY-19

3.2 FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE. 
We observed the usage of  simple future tense in various forms.
Now, let’s see how future continuous tense is used.

Usage:

  1. It is used to express a continued or an ongoing action in future.

Example:
“I will be completing my project tomorrow”,
It conveys ongoing nature of an action (waiting) which will occur in future time.

  1. It is also used to express  future action that will occur in the normal course of events.

Example:
I will be meeting Raghu tomorrow.

Grammar focus:
In this tense we use

  1. Will + be
  2. V1+ ing

Sentence structure: 
Positive sentence
Subject + will be +V1ing  + object+ time frame

Example:
1.I will be waiting for you at the busstop tomorrow morning.
2.You will be learning future perfect tomorrow.
3.They will be visiting Ooty next week.
4.She will be hosting a party next week.
5.The students will be meeting me tomorrow to discuss the project work.

Negative sentence
Subject + will not be/ won’t be + V1ing+ object + time frame.

Example:
1.We won’t be visiting kolkatta next week.

  1. I will not be coming for the class tomorrow.
    3.You will not be attending  the  party  this evening .
    4.I won’t be playing cricket next time.
  2. They won’t  be accepting our proposal at any cost.

Question:
Will + subject + be+ V1ing  + Object+ time frame ?
Example:
1.Will you  be waiting for me till then?
2.Will it be raining tomorrow?
3.Will / shall we be attending the wedding next week?
4.Will he be taking part in the workshop?
5.Will they be enjoying the party?


VOCABULARY
1.Earlier =Before a particular time (గతంలో/ముందుగా/ మొదట/తొలి)
The train arrived at the station earlier than expected.
(arrive–arrived)

2.Elsewhere  =Some other place / in or to other place.(మరేక్కడో/వేరొక చోట)
Ravi is not satisfied with his present job so he is seeking employment elsewhere.
(satisfy — satisfied)

  1. Enormous= Extremely large / large in size, extent, quantity/much larger than its size.( పెద్దదిగా/బ్రుహత్తరమైన)
    The developed countries are investing enormous amount on space research.
    (invest-invested)
  2. ensure = to make sure / make certain ( నిర్ధారించు/సరిచూసుకును)
    The school management ensured that the board examinations were conducted smoothly.
    (ensure – ensured)
    (conduct- conducted)
  3. Exaggerate= To make something seem larger than normal.( గోరంతలను కొండంతలుగా  చేయు)
    He exaggerates his personal problems to muster up the sympathy of others.
    Idiom- ‘muster up’ means – to gather – కూడగట్టు
    The politician exaggerated the mediocre achievements of his party.(mediocre -సామాన్యమైన )

VERB FORMS
(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
       V1       V2       V3

  1. seek – sought -sought
  2. creep – crept- crept
  3. burst-burst-burst
  4. forbid- forbade-forbidden
  5. kneel – knelt- knelt

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-41(5-5-2021)

TENSES DAY-18
SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE cont’d. ..
Today let us observe other usage of simple future tense.
This tense is also used to Describe people,  places and things in the future.

Here we use
” will + be”

KEY WORDS:  Tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week, next month/year, after a few days.

STRUCTURE:
POSITIVE:
Subject (I,0 we, you, they, he, she, it) + will be + Object + future time

Example:

  1. I will be on time tomorrow.
  2. My brother will be a graduate by next year.
  3. By next year, I will be a manager.
  4. Weather forecast:
    “It will be very hot tomorrow.”
  5. I am doing my B.Ed now; I will be very patient with my students when I become a teacher.

NEGATIVE:
Subject + will not (won’t) be + object + time frame

 Example:

  1. I won’t be absent to the class tomorrow.
  2. I will not be here at 5 this evening.
  3. She will not be 18 years old when she joins college next year
  4. She is very unhappy in this group. She will not be a member of this group for long.
  5. Don’t call up at 5 this evening. The manager will not be available then.

QUESTION:
Will + Subject + be+ object + time frame l

Example:

  1. Will you be regular to school tomorrow onwards?
  2. Will the shop be open at 8 tomorrow evening?
  3. Will there be more jobs in software field in the next 5 years?
  4. Will you be in India next year?
  5. Will she be present for the seminar next week?

VOCABULARY

  1. Deliberate = do something planned or intentionally (of something bad) (ఉద్దేశపూర్వక)
    It was Rohan’s  deliberate decision to quit his software job and take up social work.
  2. Delicious  =A pleasant taste( రుచికరమైన )
    Paradise Biryani is quite  delicious and yummy.

3 demonstrate= to show or make something clear( ప్రదర్శనచేయు )
The teacher used a model of the heart to  demonstrate how it functions.
(demonstrate – demonstrated)

4.Determine= strong desire to do something( నిర్ణయించబడు )
One of my students has  determined to be a pilot.
(determine-determined)

5) dip = To put something into a liquid( ముంచుట / మునిగి పోవు )
The girls sat on the edge of the pool and dipped their feet in the cool water.
( dip – dipped)


VERB FORMS
(Irregular Verbs)
Present-Past-Past participle
       V1       V2       V3

  1. freeze-  froze-frozen
  2. lay  -laid- laid
  3. tear-tore-torn
  4. swell- swelled- swelled / swollen
  5. weep- wept- wept

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-46(10-05-2021)
STRUCTURES-01
Dear friends today, let’s observe the usage of  ‘Used to’ structure

Application :

  1. It is mainly used to talk about habits in the past and not continued in the present.
  2. Action that happened regularly in the past and doesn’t happen anymore.

IMPORTANT!
‘Used to’ is used ONLY to talk about the past habitual action.
You can only use it in the simple past tense. It is not used in any other verb tense.

Grammar focus
In this structure we use

  1. Used to
  2. didn’t use to/ never used to
    3.V1

Sentence structure:
Positive :
Subject + used to + V1 + object +time frame.

Negative structure:
Subject + didn’t use to + V1+object
                 [OR]
Subject + never +used to + V1 + object.

  1. I used to play cricket when I was in school.
  2. He never used to bunk classes in the college.
  3. My brother used to enjoy riding a bike five years ago.
  4.  She used to participate in all the inter school competitions.
  5. I used to go to school on foot.
  6. We used to go to church every Sunday.
  7. I never used to attend tuition classes.

Note:
We often use ‘used to’ to emphasize a contrast between the past and Present.


Words often mistaken:
We often misuse certain words. Let us observe and get a clarity.
1 . brake / break:
brake: వేగాన్ని నిరోధించే పరికరం
The car stopped as she  applied the brake.

break: పగలగొట్టి
When did she break the window pane?

2.fare / fair:

fare: ప్రయాణముకు అయ్యే ఖర్చు
The flight fare to chennai is lesser than the first ac fare by train.

fair: సంత
We have a fair in our village every Wednesday.

3.peace / piece
peace: శాంతి
The white colour in the Indian National flag stands for peace.

piece: ముక్క
Rajesh wanted to have a large piece of cake.

  1. gilt / guilt
    gilt: బంగారు పూత
    The flower vase was covered with gilt.

guilt: నేరము / పాపం
The jury determines the defendant’s guilt or innocence.

5.site / sight
Site: అనువైన స్థలం
I have a plan to purchase a site in Jubliee Hills.

sight: చూపు /  దృష్టి
If your sight is poor, you shouldn’t drive a car.

PREPOSITIONS 🌳
Today lets observe the difference in the usage of ‘among and between’

Among –
It refers to people or things when you are talking about them as a group.
It talks about the position in relation to other.
Ex:
1) Kalpana Chawla was the only woman astronaut among those chosen for the space trip.
2) Mr. Sharma has divided his property among his 5 sons.

Between –
It is used for two persons or two things.
It talks about the position seperating two objects / persons.
Ex:
1) There will be a competition between Rahul and Priyanka for the Prime ministership.
2) The letter ‘y’ lies between ‘x’ and ‘z’.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-45(9-5-2021)
TENSES DAY-22

Dear friends
As we have already learnt all the forms of tenses, lets now revise them at a glance.
1.1 I play cricket everyday.( simple present)
2.1. I played cricket yesterday. (Simple past)
3.1. I will play cricket tomorrow. (Simple future)
1.2 I am playing cricket now. ( Present continuous)
2.2 I was playing cricket. (Past continuous)
3.2. I Will be playing cricket. ( Future continuous)
1.3. I have played cricket .( Present Perfect )
2.3. I had played cricket. (Past Perfect)
3.3. I will have played cricket.(Future Perfect)
1.4. I have been playing cricket for four years.( Present Perfect Continuous )
2.4 I had been playing cricket for four years. (Past PerfectContinuous )
3.4. I will have been playing cricket for four years(Future Perfect Continuous )
We hope that you would use these forms of tenses properly and speak effectively.

VOCABULARY

  1. Fabricate = to invent false information to trick( అల్లు/ కల్పించు )
    Many parents fabricate stories to put their children to sleep at bed time.
    (fabricate – fabricated)
  2. Fiancée= A woman that a man is engaged to(కాబోయే భార్య )
    My brother and his fiancée went out for dinner last night.
    ( go – went – gone)
  3. Fasten = to tie or attach (బిగించు / గట్టిగా బంధించు )
    The air-hostess asked the passengers to fasten their seat belts.
    (ask – asked)
    (fasten – fastened)
  4. Fraternity = (సౌభ్రాత్ర్వుత్వము )
    The conference encouraged a feeling of fraternity among the scientists.
    (encourage- encouraged)
  5. Float = To stay on water.(తేలియాడు)
    A log of wood floats on water.
    (float – floated)
  6. Paternity leave: (పిత్రుత్వపు సెలవు )
    Male employees are entitled to avail paternity leave for 15 days.

PREPOSITIONS
Yesterday we have observed the usage of prepositions of time.
The same prepositions ( on, in, at ) are also uded to talk about the place.
Today let us observe

Preposition of place:
Generally, we use at, in and on when we talk about the location of things.

Place:
At
a) Indicate small area. E.g. locality
Ex: 1. The Ranga Reddy DEO office at Lakdi ka pool.
b) Indicates particular place / place of work.
Ex: 1. We discussed the matter at the meeting.

  1. I met my friend at the bus stop.
  2. He works at the Tajmahal hotel.

In – is used for large areas, countries, continents, capital cities, places of
work and for residence where no specific place is mentioned.
Ex:

  1. Srinivas works in a hospital
  2. My cousin stays in the U.S.A.

In – signifies inside
Ex:

  1. The jewellery is in the box.
  2. We are in the classroom.

On – to indicate position in relation to another object.
Ex:

  1. The book is on the table.
  2. The doctor’s clinic is on the 1st floor.
  3. The nameplate is on the door.
  4. The boy sat on the bench.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY 48
STRUCTURES-3
Dear friends,
Let’s learn to express our abilities or our strengths using “can and could” today.
Both Can and Could are Modal Verbs. In general Could is considered more polite (or formal) that Can.

CAN is used in the present tense
COULD is used in to past tense.
The three main uses of Can are:
1) ability in present
2) possibility and
3) permission , request and offer .

CAN:
STRUCTURE-POSITIVE:
Sub+can+V1+other words

  1. I can play the drums. (Ability)
  2. My father and I can speak Hindi. (Ability)
  3. A bird can fly in the sky. (Ability)
  4. I know you can win the competition. ( possibility)
  5. Well, I think your car can be repaired, but it’s not going to be cheap.( possibility)

NEGATIVE:
Sub+can’t+V1+other words.

  1. My grand father is old now so he can’t walk fast.( inability)
  2. My cousin can’t speak Telugu.( inability)
  3. She can’t speak English fluently.( inability)
  4. We can’t complete the project on time due to power cut in our area.( possibility)

QUESTIONS:
Can+sub+V1+other words?

  1. Can you sew buttons on your shirt?(Ability)
  2. Can you lend me your book,please?(Request)
  3. Can I get you a cup of tea?(Offer)

COULD:
Could is similar to Can and often replaces Can in the past tense.
STRUCTURE-POSITIVE:
Sub+could+V1+other words

  1. Kapil Dev could blow very fast.(Ability)
  2. Rajiv Gandhi could fly any aircraft.(Ability)
  3. I could play chess when I was eight.(Ability)
  4. I could ride a horse when I was younger but now I can’t. (Ability)
  5. She could juggle eight balls when she was only 10 years old.(Ability)
  6. He could read when he was three years old.(Ability)
  7. He could earn huge profits only because of his presence of mind. (Possibility)

STRUCTURE-NEGATIVE:
Sub+couldn’t +V1+other words

  1. I couldn’t speak English when I was in school.
  2. Sheela couldn’t score 100% in maths. They were deaf. They couldn’t hear what was said.

QUESTIONS(COULD):

  1. Could you shut the door,please?(Request)
  2. Could I speak to the manager,please?(Formal request)
  3. Could you repeat that please?
  4. Could I please use your bathroom?
  5. Could we move on to the next topic now please?
  6. Could you pass me the salt please?
  7. I’m busy right now. Could you call back ?

Note: Requests and permissions are usually on the question form.
Here can is used to express informal requests.
For eg: can you switch off the lights please’?
Where as “could” is used to express formal requests..
For.eg: could you switch off the light please?

formal and informal conversation:
We use formal and informal conversation .
Informal:
We talk in Informal situation with our

  1. Parents
  2. Friends
  3. Relatives
    3.with people we are close to….

Formal:
We talk in formal situation with

  1. Elders
  2. Strangers
  3. People who hold higher positions – officials
  4. Boss

VOCABULARY

  1. Generosity : దాన గుణం / ధాత్రుత్వము the quality of being kind and generous.
    Eg: Purnima was well known among her colleagues for her generosity.

2.Grab: అందుకోవడం/లాక్కోవడము grasp or seize suddenly and roughly.
Eg: He just grabbed the bag from my hand and ran off.

  1. Gregarious : (of a person) సంఘం లో జీవించుట/నలుగురు లో ఉండుట fond of company; sociable.
    Eg: My aunt’s gregarious nature made her a popular guest at the neighbourhood parties.

MEANINGS

  1. Sachet = పెద్దసంచి,గోనె
  2. Sag = బలహీనమగు,సాగిపోవు
  3. Saint = పవిత్ర వ్యక్తి,ముని
  4. Sanctum = గర్భగుడి, పవిత్రస్థలము
  5. Satire = పరిహాసము
  6. Savage = ఆటవికమైన
  7. Scud = వేగంగా గంతులు వేస్తూ పరిగెత్తు
  8. Ward = కావలి,సంరక్షణం

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-47 (11-05-2021)
STRUCTURES-2
Dear friends let us learn to use ‘has/have/had’
We use has /have /had ‘ as main verb to express the following :

  1. Possession/ ownership
  2. Parts of somethimg
  3. Relationships
  4. Food habits
  5. Minor ailments (health problems)
  6. To talk about a place / person.

Grammar focus:
Here we use

  1. Has/have –present
  2. Had—-past
  3. Noun or adjective

Sentence structure
Positive
Subject (I we you they)+ have + noun(adj).
Subject (he, she, it )+ has + noun (adj).
Subject +had + noun (adj)
For eg:

  1. I have a car.
  2. My father has a plot in Banjara hills.
  3. My car has WiFi connectivity.
  4. I have two siblings
  5. I have a cousin the US. She has two children and a well paid job there.
  6. I have cold whereas my brother has a runny nose.
  7. I had head ache yesterday.
  8. They had a review meeting last week.

Negative structure
Subject + don’t /doesn’t + have + noun (adj)
Subject +didn’t +have+noun (adj).

  1. I don’t have a credit card.
  2. My uncle doesn’t have any children.
  3. My car doesn’t have centralised locking system.
  4. I don’t have hypotension (low blood pressure)
  5. I didn’t have knowledge of computers earlier.
  6. We didn’t have a house of our own a few years ago.

Question
Do/ Does +Sub+have+n oun (adj) ?
Did +sub+ have+ noun (adj )?
Eg:

  1. Do you have an appointment with doctor today?
  2. Does he have a son?
  3. Does she have excellent culinary skills?
  4. Does Suresh have leadership skills?
  5. Did you have a conference yesterday?
  6. Did you have power cut in your area?

Idioms surrounding school and education

  1. Book worm: someone who reads a lot.
    Eg: Rakesh is such a book worm. He can always be found reading.
  2. Brainstorm: to think of new ideas.
    Eg: All the teachers decided to brainstorm a theme for the next school play.
  3. Copy cat: someone who copies the work of others.
    Eg:
    Rani is a copy cat. She was looking at my answers while we were taking the test.
  4. Hit the books: to begin to study hard.
    Eg: After relaxing all weekend, I hit the books on Sunday evening.
  5. Pass with flying colours : to pass or qualify an exam with a high score.
    Eg:
    Many students passed the SSC exam with flying colours.

PREPOSITIONS
Today lets observe the difference in the usage of
‘With and by’
with ‘ has several uses. Lets observe each one with an example.

With (తొ )
‘With’ is used

  1. to indicate ‘together’ (కలిసి )
    She went to a movie with her friend.
  2. to indicate ‘having’ (కలిగి ఉన్న )
    The lady with long hair is my sister
  3. to indicate ‘using’ (ఉపయోగించి )
    She wrote a letter with the pen I gave her.
  4. to indicate ‘feeling’ (భావన )
    The singer performed on stage with confidence.

5.to indicate agreement or understanding (ఒప్పందము )
Are you in agreement with me?

‘by’ (ద్వారా )
let us observe the uses of ‘by’. It is used

  1. to indicate proximity/ relationship( సామీప్యత )
    He was standing by me.
    Can I sit by you?
  2. to indicate a person has done something. (చేత )
    The fan was repaired by the mechanic.
  3. to indicate an action with a purpose. (ఉద్దేశ్యంతో )
    you can pass the exam by preparing for it.
  4. to indicate a method or mean. (విధము/ పద్ధతి )
    They came by car

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-51(15-05-2021)
STRUCTURES-5
Should have
This past modal verb is all used hypothetically, to talk about things that didn’t really happen in the past.

Should have
In this structure , we use
1.Should have

  1. Past participle (V3)

Application

  1. Should have + past participle
    can mean something that would have been a good idea, but that you didn’t do it.
    Note: It’s like giving advice about the past when you say it to someone else, or regretting what you did or didn’t do when you’re talking about yourself.
    Shouldn’t have + past participle means that something wasn’t a good idea, but you did it anyway.

Structure :
Positive
Subject + Should have + V3 + Object

Negative
Subject + Shouldn’t have + V3 + Object
Ex:

  1. I should have studied harder!
    smile emoticon I didn’t study very hard and so I failed the exam. I’m sorry about this now.)
  2. I should have gone to bed early.
    smile emoticon I didn’t go to bed early and now I’m tired).
  3. I shouldn’t have eaten so much cake!
    smile emoticon I did eat a lot of cake and now I don’t feel good.)
    4.You should have called me when you arrived
    smile emoticon you didn’t call me and I was worried. I wish that you had called me).
  4. Jignesh should have left early, then he wouldn’t have missed the plane
    smile emoticon but he didn’t leave early and so he did miss the plane).

2: We can also use should have + past participle
to talk about something that, if everything is normal and okay, we think has already happened. But we’re not certain that everything is fine,
so we use ‘should have’ and not the present perfect or past simple. It’s often used with ‘by now’.

  1. His plane should have arrived by now
    smile emoticon if everything is fine, the plane has arrived).
  2. Jaya should have finished work by now
    smile emoticon if everything is normal, Jaya has finished work).
    We can also use this to talk about something that would have happened if everything was fine, but hasn’t happened.

Words often mistaken:
Let us observe some more words that we often get confused.
1 .affect / effect: 
affect: ( అఫేక్ట ) ప్రభావితం చేయు to have an influence on something.
The unseasonal rains affected the mango crop badly.

ffect: ( ఇఫేక్ట ) ప్రభావము
I tried the medicine you suggested but it didn’t have any effect.

2.bare/ bear
bare: ( బెయ (ర్ )) ఆచ్చాదన లేకుండా/ఉత్త
without any clothes or cover.
Don’t walk bare foot in the hot sun.

bear:( బెయ (ర్ )) మోయు / భరించు / భల్లూకము
accept/ tolerate something unpleasant
Please tell me the facts. I can’t bear the suspense any more.

3.complement / compliment
complement: (కాంప్లీమెంట్) జంటగ వచ్చేది
to supplement / to complete by adding.
Ginger really complements the flavor of vegetables in a stir fry.

compliment:(కాంప్లీమెంట్) అభినందన to praise
That was an excellent meal. My compliments to the chef.
( chef- skilled cook వంట వాడు )

  1. dairy /diary:
    dairy: ( డైరీ ) పాల ఉత్పత్తి కేంద్రం place where milk and milk products are made.
    I stopped taking dairy products due to obesity.
    (obesity – over weight- స్థూలకాయము)

diary: ( డయరీ ) దినచర్య
a book where we record our feelings and thoughts.
Writing a diary is a good habit.

  1. weak/ week:
    weak: ( వీక్ ) బలహీనము not strong.
    She is still feeling a bit weak after her heart surgery.

week: ( వీక్ ) వారము seven days
We go out for dinner to a restaurant once a week.
Or
My family goes out for a movie once a week

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-49
SENTENCES-4

Dear friends,
It’s time for us understand and learn the usage of Should/ Shouldn’t and has to/ have to

We use should / shouldn’t to talk about :
Right or wrong thing to do in a situation or at a place.
Precautions
Suggestions / advice

Grammar focus:
Should/ Shouldn’t
Here we use Should / shouldn’t- modal verb V1

Sentence Structure
Positive :
Subject+should+V1+other words.
EX:
1.Students should go to bed and rise early. ( Right thing)
2.To improve on English, we should read an English newspaper everyday. ( Right thing)
3.We should offer our seat to older people in bus. ( Right thing)
4.We should pay attention to the lecture. ( Right thing)
5.We should secure doors and windows before we go out. ( precaution)
6.We should install antivirus to protect our system.

Negatives:
Subject+shouldn’t+V1+other words.
EX:
1.One shouldn’t drink tea or coffee in excess.
2.We shouldn’t litter public places.
3.Students shouldn’t go unprepared for interviews.

HAVE TO/HAS TO
APPLICATION- it is used to indicate obligations or external compulsions/ rules and regulations.

STRUCTURE-POSITIVE
sub+has to+V1+other words.
Sub+have to+V1+other words.
EX:
1.There is no direct bus from here to Kota. You have to change the bus at the station.
2.During vacations you have to reserve seats in advance on any train.
3.There is no lift in this complex. You have to go up stairs.

HAD TO
APPLICATION- indicates past compulsions and obligations.
STRUCTURE:
Sub+had to+V1+other words.
1.I had to take long leave when I was unwell.
2.Rajita had to produce her I.D. Card to enter the exam hall.
3.Mr.Sinha had to have a license to possess a gun.


Words often mistaken:
We often misuse certain words. Let us observe and get a clarity.
1 . bottle / battle: 
Bottle: (బాటిల్) సీసా
I always carry my water bottle wherever I go.

battle: (బెటీల్ ) యుద్ధం
King Ashoka adopted Buddhism after the Kalinga battle.

2.People / pupil
People: (పీపుల్ ) ప్రజలు
Many people were waiting at the bus stop.
Pupil: (ప్యుపిల్) విద్యార్ధి / కనుపాప
How many pupils have passed in SSC from your school?

  1. adopt / adapt
    adopt: దత్తత చేసుకోను / అమలు చేయు / అనుసరించు
    The recently elected body adopted new approach to solve the problems.
    adapt: స్వీకరించు /కొత్త పరిస్తితులకు అనువుగా ఉండు
    we need to adapt to the curriculum which student centric
  2. live / leave
    live: బ్రతికివుండు/జీవించు
    One cannot live without air and water
    leave: (లీవ్) వదిలి / విడిచి
    I was just getting ready to leave the house when the door bell rang.

5.pole / poll
Pole: (పోల్) స్తంభం / ధ్వజము
All the electricity poles were replaced after the storm
Poll: (పోల్) ఎన్నికలలో ఓటు వేయు /క్రియ /సంఖ్య /
The GHMC polling was conducted peacefully

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-50(14-05-2021)
Words often mistaken:
Let us observe some more words that we often get confused.
1 .except /accept:
accept: అంగీకరించు
to take willingly
The new store accepts all credit cards.

except: మినహా excluding
The museum is open daily except Mondays .

  1. hole / whole
    hole: రంధ్రం
    a gap / space
    My neighbour’s dog dug a hole in my garden.
    whole:మొత్తం complete
    We spent the whole day at the museum/ zoo..
  2. quiet / quite
    quiet:నిశ్శబ్దం
    without noise or sound.
    The examination hall was very quiet as the students were writing their exams

quite: చాలా completely
The student was not quite sure of the answer to a tricky problem in the Math paper.

  1. Principal /principle:
    Principal: ప్రధాన main / head of a school or business.
    In spite of the intense summer heat, the man had to push his fruit cart, as it was his principal source of income

Principle: సూత్రం/సిద్ధాంతం belief
India runs on the principles of democracy.

  1. weather/ whether
    weather: వాతావరణము related to climate.
    The weather cooled down a lot after the recent showers

whether: అని / ఒకవేళ if
I am not sure whether she would like the gift.


Learn these prepositions today….

  1. Below
  2. Above
  3. Under
  4. Over

Below– is used for lower than.
Ex:
1) Candidates below 18 years cannot get membership to this club.
2) The temperature in Ladakh goes below 0° C.

Above – is used for higher than.
Ex:
1) The bank is above the showroom.
2) You have to be above average to get admission in a good college.

Under – is used for vertically below.
Ex:
1) She rested under the tree.
2) She keeps the keys under the pillow.

Over – is used for vertically above.
Ex:
1) The plane flew over the hill.
2) The thief jumped over the wall.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-57 (24-5-2021)
Past Passive voice
Dear friends
Let’s learn today to form passive sentences in past tense.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • Be forms in the present are used ( was/were, been , being)
  • Past participle form of verb (V3) is used.
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Simple Past tense
Active sentence :
subject + V2+ object

Passive sentence :
Object as subject + was/were + V3 + by + subject as object

Eg:

  1. I attended a seminar yesterday. ( A.V.)
    A seminar was attended by me. ( P.V.)
  2. Deepak secured 10/10 GPA from my school . ( A.V.)
    10/10 GPA was secured by Deepak from my school.( P.V.)
  3. He posted the letters . ( A.V.)
    The letters were posted by him.( P.V.)

Past continuous tense.
Active sentence :
Subject + was/were + V1ing + object.

Passive voice :
Object as subject + was/were + being + V3 + by + subject as object.

Eg:

  1. I was attending a seminar. ( A.V.)
    A seminar was being attended by me. ( P.V.)
  2. Deepak was, securing 10/10 GPA in all his home exams (A.V.)
    10/10 GPA was being secured by Deepak in all his home exams .( P.V.)
  3. He was posting the letters . ( A.V.)
    The letters were being posted by him.( P.V.)

Past perfect tense:
Active voice
Subject + had+ V3+ object

Passive voice
Object as subject + had+ been + V 3 + subject as object.

Eg:

  1. I had attended a seminar yesterday. ( A.V.)
    A seminar had been attended by me. ( P.V.)
  2. Deepak had secured 10/10 GPA from my school . ( A.V.)
    10/10 GPA had been secured by Deepak from my school.( P.V.)
  3. He had posted the letters . ( A.V.)
    The letters had been posted by him.( P.V.)

Past perfect continuous tense:
Active voice
Subject + had+ been + V1 ing +object

Passive voice
Object as subject + had+ been + being +V 3 + subject as object.

Eg:

  1. I had been attending a seminar . ( A.V.)
    A seminar had been being attended by me. ( P.V.)
  2. Deepak had been securing 10/10 GPA in all his home exams . ( A.V.)
    10/10 GPA had been being secured by Deepak in all his hem exams .(P.V.)
  3. He had been posting the letters . ( A.V.)
    The letters had been being posted by him.(
    Note:
    Generally past perfect continuous passive is not used in the spoken language.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-56 (23-5-2021)

Passive voice
Dear friends
Let’s learn today to form passive sentences in present tense.
While rewriting active sentences in passive voice we must note the following:

  1. The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  2. Be forms in the present are used ( is/ are, been , being)
  3. Past participle form of verb (V3) is used.
  4. The subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

I. Simple Present tense
Active sentence :
subject + V1 + object

Passive sentence :
Object as subject + is/are + V3 + by + subject as object

Eg:

  1. We enjoy holidays. ( A.V.)
    Holidays are enjoyed by us. ( P.V.)
  2. Children play cricket everyday. ( A.V.)
    Cricket is played by children everyday.(P.V.)
  3. Rajesh watches television . ( A.V.)
    Television is watched by Rajesh.( P.V.)

II. Present continuous tense.
Active sentence :
Subject + is/am/are+ V1ing + object.

Passive voice :
Object as subject + is/are + being + V3 + by + subject as object.

Eg:

  1. We are enjoying holidays. ( A.V.)
    Holidays are being enjoyed by us. ( P.V.)
  2. Children are playing cricket everyday. (A.V.)
    Cricket is being played by children everyday.( P.V.)
  3. Rajesh is watching television . ( A.V.)
    Television is being watched by Rajesh.( P.V.)

III. Present perfect tense:
Active voice
Subject + has/ have+ V3+ object

Passive voice
Object as subject + has/have+ been + V 3 + subject as object.

Eg:

  1. We have enjoyed holidays. ( A.V.)
    Holidays have been enjoyed by us. ( P.V.)
  2. Children have played cricket everyday. ( A.V.)
    Cricket has been played by children everyday.( P.V.)
  3. Rajesh has watched television . ( A.V.)
    Television has been watched by Rajesh.( P.V.)

IV. Present perfect continuous tense:
Active voice
Subject + has/ have+ been + V1 ing +object

Passive voice
Object as subject + has/have+ been + being +V 3 + subject as object.

Eg:

  1. We have been enjoying holidays for a month ( A.V.)
    Holidays have been being enjoyed by us for a month. ( P.V.)
  2. Children have been playing cricket since 7 a.m. ( A.V.)
    Cricket has been being played by children since 7 a.m.( P.V.)
  3. Rajesh has been watching television for hours. ( A.V.)
    Television has been being watched by Rajesh for hours.( P.V.)

Note: Generally present perfect continuous passive is not used in the spoken language.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-55 (22-5-2021)
ACTIVE VOICE-PASSIVE VOICE
friends, let’s observe the usage of passives from today.
The two ways of expressing an action are active and passive

The Active
We use the active form to say what the subject does.
For example:

  1. I speak English every day at work.
  2. He cleaned my car last week.
  3. The youth planted the trees.

We use the passive form to say what happens to people or things, to say what is done to them.
For example:

  1. English is spoken here everyday.
  2. My car was cleaned by him last week.
  3. The trees were planted by the youth.

We use the passive form when we don’t know who did the action.
For example:

  1. The car was damaged while it was parked on the street.
  2. The shirts were made in the US.

We use the passive form when what was done is more important than who did it.
For example:

  1. It was approved by George last week.
  2. I was informed by the Human Resources Manager only two days ago.

PREPOSITIONS
Let’s observe some more prepositions today.

during : (సమయంలో /పర్యంతం )
From the begining to the end of a particular period.
Eg:
The office will be closed during the holidays.
We are planning to visit my cousin during christmas.

towards:(వైపు /పక్కగా / దిశగా/ దిక్కుగా)
In the direction of or closer to someone or something.
Eg: Asha started running towards the house as she saw a snake.

within : (లోపల / లో )
inside/ not farther than an area or period of time.
Eg:
The results were announced within a month.
He is very highly regarded within his profession.

Upon:( పైన / మీద)on
Eg:
There used to be a television antenna upon every house.
He climbed upon the horse and rode off.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-54 (21-5-2021)
The Imperative.
Friends, today let us observe imperative sentences.
These are used to express requests, suggestions, advice commands, instructions ……

Typically these sentences are short and simple.
They often begin with a verb. (imperatives don’t have subject. The listener becomes the subject of the sentence.)

  1. We can use the imperative to give a direct order (command) ఆజ్ఞాపించుటకు
     – Take that chewing gum out of your mouth.
  • Stand up straight.
  • Give me the details.
  1. We can use the imperative to give instructions.(సూచించుటకు)
     – Open your book.
     – Take two tablets every evening.
     – Take a left and then a right.
  2. We can use the imperative to make an informal invitation.(స్నేహపూర్వకంగా ఆహ్వానించుటకు )
     – Come in and sit down.
     – Make yourself at home.
     – Please start without me.
  3. We can use the imperative on signs and notices.(సూచించుటకు / ప్రకటనకు)
     – Push.
     – Do not use.
     – Insert one dollar.
     – Use the dustbin.
  4. We can use the imperative to give friendly informal advice.(సలహాలు ఇచ్చుటకు)
     – Speak to him. Tell him how you feel.
  • Have a quiet word with her about it.
     – Don’t go.
     – Stay at home and rest.
     – Get some sleep and recover.
  1. We can make the imperative ‘more polite’ by adding ‘do’.(వినయముగా చెప్పుటకు)
     – Do be quiet.
     – Do come.
     – Do sit down.

PREPOSITIONS
Let’s observe a few more prepositions today.

Onto:
used to show movement into or on a particular place(పైకి వెళ్ళు)
Eg:
The cat jumped onto the chair.
The police are onto us. (slang)

Outside:
the external side beyond the limits or scope of… (బయట)
Eg:

  1. I don’t live in London. I live outside London.
  2. It was very cold outside the car.
  3. This is outside my scope.

Over: (పైన / మీద )

  1. Extending directly upwards from.
  2. At a higher level (covering something)
    Eg:
    • We are flying over the mountains.
    • Put the blanket over the bed.
    • The cat jumped over the wall.
    • Let’s discuss it over dinner.
    • The king ruled over the country for many years
    • The town is just over the border.
    • There is rain over the whole country.

Under: (కింద / అడుగున)

  1. Extending or directly below.
  2. At a lower level than something
    Eg:
    • The mouse ran under the chair.
    • The bucket is under the sink.
    • Submarines can travel under water.
    • We drove under a bridge.
    • I have a T-shirt under my pullover.
    • Who do you work under? (Who is your boss?)

STRUCTURES-08
Friends, certain verbs are frequently used in our regular speech.
Today let us observe the usage of some of them.

Important Verbs in English:
Let, Make, Have, Get, Help

The verbs – let, make, have, get, and help are called causative verbs ( కారకాలు / కారణమైన ) because they cause some other action to happen.
Here are some examples of how causative verbs work in English sentences.

LET = permit something to happen(అనుమతించు / వీలుకల్పించు)
Grammatical structure:
▪ LET + PERSON/THING + VERB 1
Examples:
▪ I don’t let my kids watch violent movies.
▪ Maya’s father won’t let her adopt a puppy because he’s allergic to dogs.
▪ Our boss doesn’t let us eat lunch at our desks; we have to eat in the cafeteria.
▪ Don’t let the advertising expenses surpass 25 lakhs.

Remember: The past tense of let is also let; there is no change!

MAKE = force or require someone to take an action (కల్పించు/ ఏర్పరచు/ చేయించు )(make – made)
Grammatical structure:
▪ MAKE + PERSON + VERB 1
Examples:
▪ After Bobby broke the neighbor’s window, his parents made him pay for it.
▪The manager ordered the clerk to make the necessary arrangements for the party.
▪ The teacher made all the students rewrite their papers, because the first drafts were not acceptable.

HAVE = give someone else the responsibility to do something
Grammatical structure:
1▪ HAVE + PERSON + VERB 1
2▪ HAVE + THING + PAST PARTICIPLE OF VERB (V3)
(have -had)

structure 1 example
▪ I’ll have my assistant call you to reschedule the appointment.
▪ The businessman had his secretary make copies of the report.

structure #2: example
▪ I’m going to have my hair cut tomorrow.
▪ We’re having our house painted this weekend.
▪ Bobby had his teeth whitened; his smile looks great!
Note: In informal speech, we often use get in these cases:
▪ I’m going to get my hair cut tomorrow.
▪ We’re getting our house painted this weekend.
▪ Bobby got his teeth whitened; his smile looks great!
▪ My washing machine is broken; I need to get it repaired.

GET = convince/encourage someone to do something
Grammatical structure:
▪ GET + PERSON + TO + VERB
Examples:
▪ How can we get all the employees to arrive on time?
▪ My husband hates housework; I can never get him to wash the dishes!
▪ I was nervous about eating noodles, but my brother got me to try it at a chinese restaurant.
▪ The non-profit got a professional photographer to take photos at the event for free.

HELP = assist someone in doing something
Grammatical structure:
▪ HELP + PERSON + VERB (base form)
▪ HELP + PERSON + TO + VERB
After “help,” you can use “to” or not – both ways are correct. In general, the form without “to” is more common:
▪ He helped me carry the boxes.
▪ He helped me to carry the boxes.
▪ Reading before bed helps me relax

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-52 (19-5-2021)
STRUCTURES-07
Friends, Yesterday we have observed the structure ‘could have’.
Today let us observe the usage of
would have + past participle

Grammar focus:
Would have
Past participle (V3 )
1: Part of the third conditional .
If I had had enough money, I would have bought a car. ఒక వేళ నా వద్ద తగినంత money ఉండి ఉంటే. నేను కారు కొనుండే వాడిని.
(but I didn’t have enough money, so I didn’t buy a car).

2: Because ‘would’ (and will) can also be used to show if you want to do something or not (volition / సంకల్పము ), we can also use would have + past participle to talk about something you wanted to do but didn’t.
This is very similar to the third conditional, but we don’t need an ‘if clause’.
I would have gone to the party, but I was really busy.
smile emoticon I wanted to go to the party, but I didn’t because I was busy. If I hadn’t been so busy, I would have gone to the party.)
I would have called you, but I didn’t know your number.
smile emoticon I wanted to call you but I didn’t know your number, so I didn’t call you.)
A: Nobody volunteered to help us with the fair
B: I would have helped you. I didn’t know you needed help.
smile emoticon If I had known that you needed help, I would have helped you.)

PREPOSITIONS
Of : expressing the relationship between a part and a whole:

  • I live in the house at the end of the road.
  • Where is the key of the car?
  • Do you like the work of Shakespeare?
  • What was the cost of this book?
  • He lives in the City of Jaipur.
  • It was kind of you to help me.
  • This is the cause of the problem.
  • He died of cancer.
  • Most tables are made of wood.
  • Can I have a cup of coffee?
  • I know some of these people.
  • I don’t know any of these people.
  • He lives south of London.

By:

  1. identifying the agent performing an action:
    2.indicating the means of achieving something.
  • We came by car.
  • Fireworks were invented by the Chinese.
  • It happened by accident.
  • He lost the race by five seconds.
  • The room is 10 metres by 6 metres..
  • We must finish by Tuesday.
  • We were sitting by the window.
  • By my calculation he must be 73.

For (also conj). : as a result of something or because of..
Eg:

  • This is for you.
  • Do you want to go for a walk??
  • Cigarettes are bad for you.
  • I’m saving for a new car.
  • Is this the road for khaitabad?
  • Is this the train for Delhi?
  • I bought it for Rs 50.
  • We worked for three hours.
  • Keep walking for two kilometres.

Off: moving away and often down from.
Eg:

  • Please take your shoes off the table.
  • Keep off the grass.
  • It fell off the table and broke.
  • They live in a street off Fifth Avenue.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-51 (18-5-2021)
STRUCTURES-6

Could have
In this structure , we use

  1. Could have
  2. Past participle (V3)

Structure :
Positive
Subject + Could have + V3 + Object

Negative
Subject + Couldn’t have + V3 + Object1.

Could have + past participle means
that something was possible in the past, or you had the ability to do something in the past, but that you didn’t do it
Eg:

  1. I could have stayed up late, but I decided to go to bed early.
  2. They could have won the race, but they didn’t try hard enough.
  3. Jayesh could have bought the book, but he borrowed it from the library instead.
  4. He could have studied harder, but he was too lazy and that’s why he failed the exam.

2: We use could have + past participle
When we want to make a guess about something that happened in the past. In this case, we don’t know if what we’re saying is true or not true.
We’re just talking about our opinion of what maybe happened.
Why is Suresh late?

  1. He could have got stuck in traffic.
  2. He could have forgotten that we were meeting today.
  3. He could have overslept.
  4. Couldn’t have + past participle
    means that something wasn’t possible in the past, even if you had wanted to do it.
    Eg:
    I couldn’t have arrived any earlier. There was a terrible traffic jam
    smile emoticon it was impossible for me to have arrived any earlier).
    He couldn’t have passed the exam, even if he had studied harder. It’s a really, really difficult exam.

One-word Prepositions

  1. aboard : on or into (a ship, aircraft, train, or other vehicle).
    We went aboard the boat.
    Is there a doctor aboard the plane?

about : on the subject of, concerning.(గురించి)
What do you think about Mary?
Let’s talk about something different.
I’ve just read a book about President Kalam.
The lion was pacing about its cage.

above : at a higher level or layer than ( పైన / మీద )
We are flying above the clouds.
We live in the hills, 1,000 metres above sea-level.
It’s only two degrees above freezing point. [+2ºC] 
Who came above you in the test results?

across: from one side to the other side of.( అంతటా/అడ్డంగా)
We drove across the desert.
The dog ran across the road.
There is a bridge across the river.

after : in the time following (also conj.) (తరువాత/ అనంతరం )
We had lunch [1pm] after the meeting [11am].
Let’s meet the day after tomorrow.

against : in opposition to(వ్యతిరేకంగా/విరుద్దంగా / ప్రతికూలంగా)
Did you vote for or against the suggestion?
He put his bicycle against the wall.

along
We walked along the beach for two miles.
There are trees along the road.
The toilet is along the corridor.

alongside – side by side (కలిసి / పక్కన )
Their boat came alongside our boat.

Team A worked alongside Team B during  construction.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-59(26-5-2021)
Language functions
Language functions refer to the purposes in which we use language to communicate. We use language for a variety of formal and informal purposes, and specific grammatical structures and vocabulary are often used with each language function. Some examples of language functions include:

  • Self introduction/ Introducing others
  • Asking opinion, giving opinion , agreeing and disagreeing
  •  Complimenting and responding
  • Appreciating and responding
  • Complaining and handling complaints
  • Asking for advise and giving advise
  • Asking information , giving information
  • Persuasion
  • Asking questions
  • Expressing likes and dislikes. And many more…….
  • Today we will look at the phrases to be used to give introduction
  • a) Self Introduction
  • Here are expressions to introduce yourself:
  • I am……. (Mr. / Miss. / Mrs + family name)
  • My name is …
  • I’m ….
  • Nice to meet you; I’m …
  • Pleased to meet you; I’m …
  • Let me introduce myself; I’m …
  • I’d like to introduce myself; I’m …
  • Let me introduce myself to you.
  • Allow me to introduce myself to you.
  • b) Introducing people:
  • May I introduce you to ….?
  • Let me introduce you to …?
  • I’d like you to meet ….
  • I don’t think you have met …, do you?
  • You haven’t met …, have you?
  • Have you met …?
  • Do you know …?
  • This is ….
  • c) Responding to introductions:
  • (It’s) nice to meet you.
  • Nice meeting you.
  • (I’m) pleased to meet you.
  • Happy to meet you.
  • Glad to know you.
  • How do you do?
  • It’s an honour to know you.
  • It’s my pleasure to have acquaintance with you.
  • Expressions used in informal situation :
  • Hi, Hello, morning, fine thanks, bye, see you.

Example
Examples of Introducing :

  1. Hello, my name is Kiran . I live in Hyderabad but I was born in Karimnagar on May 2nd , in 1998. I am pursuing BTech from JNTU . I choose to study here because ….
  2. Hi, let me introduce myself. My name is Purvi. I’m sixteen years old. I was born on October 17th, 2002 in Mahboobnagar . I like to study here because…..
  3. Good Morning, please allow me to introduce myself I am Rakesh . I was born in Delhi on July 26th, 2001. Now I live in this city, therefore I choose this MBA to study….

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-58 (25-5-2021)
Future Passive voice
Dear friends
Let’s learn today to form passive sentences in future tense.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  •  Be forms in the present are used ( was/were, been , being)
  •  Past participle form of verb (V3) is used.
  •  the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Simple Future tense
Active sentence :
subject + will + V1+ object
Passive sentence :
Object as subject + will be + V3 + by + subject as object

Eg:

  1. The head master will honour the meritorious students of the school . ( A.V.)
    The meritorious students of the school will be honoured by the head master. ( P.V.)
  2. He will submit the project report to the teacher . ( A.V.)
    The project report will be submitted by him to the teacher .( P.V.)
  3. I won’t delay the work. . ( A.V.)
    The work won’t be delayed by me. (P.V.)

Future continuous tense.
Active sentence :
subject + will be + V1ing +object
Passive sentence :
Object as subject + will be + being + V3 + by + subject as object

Eg:

  1. The head master will be honouring the meritorious students of the school . ( A.V.)
    The meritorious students of the school will be being honoured by the head master. ( P.V.)
  2. He will be submitting the project report to the teacher . ( A.V.)
    The project report will be being submitted by him to the teacher .( P.V.)
  3. I won’t be delaying the work. . ( A.V.)
    The work won’t be better being delayed by me. (P.V.)

Future perfect tense:
Active sentence :
subject + will have + V3+ object
Passive sentence :
Object as subject + will have been + V3 + by + subject as object

Eg:

  1. The head master will have honoured the meritorious students of the school . ( A.V.)
    The meritorious students of the school will have been honoured by the head master. ( P.V.)
  2. He will have submitted the project report to the teacher . ( A.V.)
    The project report will have been submitted by him to the teacher .( P.V.)
  3. I won’t have delayed the work. . ( A.V.)
    The work won’t have been delayed by me. (P.V.)

Future perfect continuous tense:
Active sentence :
subject + will have been + V1 ing +object
Passive sentence :
Object as subject + will have been + being + V3 + by + subject as object
Eg:

  1. The head master will have been honouring the meritorious students of the school . ( A.V.)
    The meritorious students of the school will have been being honoured by the head master. ( P.V.)
  2. He will have been submitting the project report to the teacher . ( A.V.)
    The project report will have been being submitted by him to the teacher .( P.V.)
  3. I won’t have been delaying the work. . ( A.V.)
    The work won’t have been being delayed by me. (P.V.)

Note: 
Generally future continuous tense, future perfect tense , future perfect continuos passives are not used in the spoken language.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-61(28-5-2021)

EXPRESSING COMPLIMENT
Compliment is an expression that we show or say to express/give praise. Compliments express approval and are aimed at showing that you like some aspect of the other person’s appearance, belonging or work. It is also to appreciate other people, but overuse of compliments might seem insincere. for example:

  • on his/her general appearance
  • if you notice something new about the person’s appearance
  • when you visit someone’s house for the first time
  • when other people do their best

Expressions of Compliment

  • What a nice dress!
  • You look great.
  • You look very nice/beautiful/handsome.
  • I really must express my admiration for your dance.
  • Good grades!
  • Excellent!
  • Nice work!
  • Terrific.
  • I would like compliment you on …
  • I think your (hair) is very nice.
  • I just love your (dress).
  • The (chicken) is very delicious.
  • I really like your (skirt).
  • This (cheese) is super.
  • That’s neat.
  • That’s nice.
  • That’s not bad.
  • Pretty good.

The responses:

  • Thank you.
  • Really ?
  • I will.
  • Thanks a lot.
  • Thank you. It’s nice of you to say so.
  • Thank you but really isn’t anything special.
  • Thank you. Yours is even nicer.
  • I’m glad you like it.

Sample Dialogue.

  1. Hemanth :What a great Motorcycle you have, Budi.
    Bhaskar : Thank you, Hemanth. I just finished modifying it.
    Hemanth: You mean this is the old motorcycle that you used to ride to school?
    Bhaskar : Yes, it is.
    Hemanth: It looks a lot different. What did you do to it?
    Bhaskar : Not much. I had it paint with a brighter colour and add some new accessories.
    Hemanth: Great job!
    Bhaskar : Thanks.

Compliments on successes
Sample phrases (from formal to informal)
A: I would like to compliment you on your recent achievement.
B: Thank you for saying so, but it was the work of the whole team.
A: The essay you wrote was superb. I’d like to use it as a model for other students.
B: Thank you. I’d be so honored.

  1. Compliments on possessions

Sample phrases (from formal to informal)
A: That’s a nice T-shirt you’re wearing.
B: I appreciate the compliment. It was a birthday present from one of my classmates.
A: Your new car looks terrific.
B: Thank you. It’s very economical.

  1. Compliments on appearance

Sample phrases (from formal to informal)
A: I think your new hairstyle is lovely.
B: That’s nice of you to say so. I love yours, too.
A: I really like your blue eyes. They make you look like a movie star.
B: Thank you. That’s a nice compliment.

  1. Compliments on skills

Sample phrases (from formal to informal)

A: I’ve never heard any singer perform that song so beautifully.
B: Thank you. It’s really nice to hear that from someone with your experience.
A: The chicken was delicious.
B: Thanks. I’m glad you enjoyed it.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-60 (27-5-2021)

ASKING & GIVING OPINION

  1. Opinion includes the words of opinion and argument/ reasons.
  2. Opinion dialogue is a dialog consists of two persons or more who have opinion each others. It can use the expressions, such as in my opinion, in my view, I think etc.
  3. Argument dialogue is a dialog that states the arguments or reasons. It can use the words such as first, second etc for arranging arguments.

Asking opinion:

Formal :

  • Have you got any comments on …..
  • Do you have any idea?
  • Do you have any opinion on ……
  • – Would you give me your opinion on……….?
  • What is your reaction to ……
  • What is your opinion about……….?
  • What are you feeling about………….?
  • What are your views on……….?
  • Please give me your frank opinion?

Informal:

  • What do you think of…….?
  • What do you think about………?
  • What is your opinion?
  • Why do they behave like that?
  • Do you think it’s going?
  • How do you like?
  • How was the trip?
  • How do you think of Rina’s idea ?
  • How do you feel about this dicition?

Giving opinion

Formal

  • I personally believe …..
  • I personally consider ….
  • I personally think /feel ….
  • I hold the opinion ….
  • My own view of the matter is ……
  • Well, personally …….
  • If I had my view, I would …..

Informal

  • I think I like it.
  • I don’t think I care for it.
  • I think it’s good/nice/terrific……..
  • I think that awful/ not nice/ terrible…………
  • I don’t think much of it.
  • I think that……..
  • In my opinion, I would rather……….
  • In my case …..
  • What I’m more concerned with ….
  • What I have in my mind is………
  • The way I see is that…………
  • No everyone will agree with me, but ….
  • To my mind …..
  • From my point of view ….

AGREEING AND DISAGREEING FOR AN OPINION

Agreeing

  • Yes, I agree with John.
  • Yes, I think that’s a good point.
  • I’ll go along with that.
  • I agree…
  • I am with you…
  • I think so…
  • It certainly is…
  • That is what I was thinking.
     – I am of the same opinion

Disagreeing

  • Yes, I agree with John.
  • Yes, I think that’s a good point.
  • I’ll go along with that.
  • I agree…
  • I am with you…
  • I think so…
  • It certainly is…
  • That is what I was thinking.
  • I am of the same opinion
  • I’m sorry, but I can’t agree with John.

Note:

  1. Informal Expressions are used in a situation where you are talking between friends or close friends. The expressions usually respond to something that you discuss in an informal situation.
  2. Formal Expressions are used in a situation where you are talking in a formal situation, such as in the office or school between the teacher and students

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-63
Direct and Indirect Speech
There are two ways to report what someone says or thinks:

  1. Direct speech shows a person’s exact words. Quotation marks (“….”) are a sign that the words are the EXACT words that a person used.
    Direct speech:
    a. Mary asked, “Where are you going?”
    b. Jayesh replied, “I’m going home.”
  2. Reported speech puts the speaker’s words or ideas into a sentence without quotation marks. Noun clauses are usually used.
    ( In reported speech, the reader does not assume that the words are the speaker’s exact words; often, they are a paraphrase of the speaker’s words.

Reported speech:
a. Mary asked Jayesh where he was going.
b. Jayesh said he was going home.

Note: 
Use of the word “that” is optional in reported speech. Both of the following sentences are correct:

  1. The boy said that he was lost.
  2. The boy said he was lost.
    There are various rules to change direct speech to indirect speech….
    Let’s see them now

PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES: CHANGES NECESSARY
First and second person pronouns and possessive adjectives normally change to the third person except when the speaker is reporting his own words.
I = he, she; me = him, her; my = his, her; mine = his, hers; we = they…)

She said, “he’s my son”.
She said that he was her son. 

“I’m ill”, she said. 
She said that she was ill.

THIS / THESE
This used in time expressions usually becomes that.

  1. a) She said, “She’s coming this week”. 
    b) She said that she was coming that week.

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY 12

  1. అతనికి తెలుసా ?
    Does he know?
  2. శ్రీను గత 5 సంవత్సరాలుగా మా స్కూల్లోనే చదువుతున్నాడు
    Srinu has been studying in our school for the last five years.
  3. ప్రియాంక,Board మీద ఈ లెక్క చేస్తవా?
    Priyanka, will you do this problem on the black board?
  4. ఏం మల్లయ్య…నీ కొడుకును బడికి ఎందుకు పంపిస్తలేవ్ ?
    What Mallaiah… why are you not sending your son to school?
  5. పిల్లలు,రాజు Pencil పోయిందంట.ఎవరికన్న దొరికింద?

Children, Raju has lost his pencil. Did anyone find it?

MEANINGS & EX

  1. Hygienic = conductive to good health (ఆరోగ్యకరమైన )
    Teachers should inculcate hygienic eating habits among students during MDM.
  2. Scold = reprimand ( దూషించు/ తిట్టు)
    Scolding others for smallest mistakes is a bad habit.
  3. Befitting manner = in a suitable way ( తగురీతిలో / తగినవిధంగా)
    The Indian army tackled the enemy attack in a befitting manner.
  4. Defeat = to overcome in a contest ( ఓడించు)
    The West Indies defeated England in the final over.
  5. Gigantic (జైగ్యాoటిక్) = very big, huge ( చాలా పెద్దదయిన)

The Titanic was a gigantic ship.

VERB FORMS
Present-Past-Past participle

  1. Lose-lost-lost
  2. Eat -ate -eaten
  3. Fall – fell – fallen
  4. Take – took- taken
  5. Give – gave – given

SPOKEN ENGLISH for children DAY 13

  1. శ్రీను సార్, మీ family members కి  నా తరపున  ఉగాది శుభాకాంక్షలు చెప్పండి.
    Srinu sir, Convey best wishes to your family members on  behalf of me on the eve of Ugadi.
  2. మాధవి,తొందరగా ready  అవ్వు గుడికి పోదాం.
    Madhavi,get ready soon. Let’s go to a temple.
  3. నేను చిన్నోడికి స్నానం చేయించేలోపు మీరు దర్వాజ కి తోరణాలు కట్టండి.
    You tie the mango leaves at the door top while I’ll get our son bathed.
  4. మల్లేష్,నీది ఏ రాశి?
    Mallesh, what is your zodiac sign?
  5. ఈ ఉగాదితో మొదలయ్యే  తెలుగు నూతన సంవత్సరం పేరేంటో మీకు తెలుసా ?
    Do you know the name of the Telugu new year starting with this Ugadi ?
  6. మొత్తం 60 తెలుగు  సంవత్సరాలలో ఈ దుర్ముఖి నామ సంవత్సరం 30వది.
    This Durmukhi Telugu new year is the 30th of the total 60 Telugu new year cycle.

MEANINGS & EX

  1. Awesome (ఆసమ్) = very impressive ( ఆకట్టుకునే )
    The idea of teaching spoken English through whatsapp is very awesome!!
  2. Glad = joy or pleasure (సంతోషము /
    సంతోషించు) I am glad you are here.
  3. Chatterbox = an excessively talkative person (వదురుబోతు)
    She talks too much. People call her chatterbox.
  4. Precious ( ప్రెషస్ )  = of great value (విలువైన)
    Don’t waste your time. Time is very precious.
  5. Henceforth = from now on (ఇప్పటినుండి)
    Henceforth I shall try to speak in English.

VERB FORMS
Present-Past-Past participle

  1. Read(రీడ్)-read(రెడ్)- read(రెడ్)
  2. Sell-sold – sold
  3. Sit-sat-sat
  4. Sing-sang-sung
  5. Make-made-made

SPOKEN ENGLISH DAY-58 (25-5-2021)
Future Passive voice
Dear friends
Let’s learn today to form passive sentences in future tense.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  •  Be forms in the present are used ( was/were, been , being)
  •  Past participle form of verb (V3) is used.
  •  the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Simple Future tense
Active sentence :
subject + will + V1+ object
Passive sentence :
Object as subject + will be + V3 + by + subject as object

Eg:

  1. The head master will honour the meritorious students of the school . ( A.V.)
    The meritorious students of the school will be honoured by the head master. ( P.V.)
  2. He will submit the project report to the teacher . ( A.V.)
    The project report will be submitted by him to the teacher .( P.V.)
  3. I won’t delay the work. . ( A.V.)
    The work won’t be delayed by me. (P.V.)

Future continuous tense.
Active sentence:
subject + will be + V1ing +object
Passive sentence:
Object as subject + will be + being + V3 + by + subject as object

Examples:

  1. The headmaster will be honoring the meritorious students of the school. ( A.V.)
    The meritorious students of the school will be being honored by the headmaster. ( P.V.)
  2. He will be submitting the project report to the teacher. ( A.V.)
    The project report will be being submitted by him to the teacher.
    ( P.V.)
  3. I won’t be delaying the work. ( A.V.)
    The work won’t be better being delayed by me. (P.V.)

Future perfect tense:
Active sentence :
subject + will have + V3+ object
Passive sentence :
Object as subject + will have been + V3 + by + subject as object

Examples:

  1. The headmaster will have honoured the meritorious students of the school. ( A.V.)
    The meritorious students of the school will have been honoured by the headmaster. ( P.V.)
  2. He will have submitted the project report to the teacher. ( A.V.)
    The project report will have been submitted by him to the teacher .( P.V.)
  3. I won’t have delayed the work. ( A.V.)
    The work won’t have been delayed by me. (P.V.)

Future perfect continuous tense:
Active sentence :
subject + will have been + V1 ing +object
Passive sentence :
Object as subject + will have been + being + V3 + by + subject as object

Examples:

  1. The headmaster will have been honoring the meritorious students of the school. ( A.V.)
    The meritorious students of the school will have been being honored by the headmaster. ( P.V.)
  2. He will have been submitting the project report to the teacher. ( A.V.)
    The project report will have been being submitted by him to the teacher. ( P.V.)
  3. I won’t have been delaying the work. ( A.V.)
    The work won’t have been being delayed by me. (P.V.)

Note: 
Generally future continuous tense, future perfect tense , future perfect continuos passives are not used in the spoken lan

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