Formative Assessment (FA) is a tool used by the teacher to continuously monitor a student’s progress in a non–threatening, supportive environment. It involves regular descriptive feedback, a chance for the student to reflect on the performance, take advice and improve upon it. If used effectively, it can improve student performance tremendously, while raising the self-esteem of the child and reducing the work load of the teacher.
Salient features of Formative Assessment :
- diagnostic and remedial.
- makes the provision for effective feedback.
- provides the platform for the active involvement of students in their own learning.
- enables teachers to adjust teaching to take account of the results of assessment.
- recognizes the profound influence assessment has on the motivation and self-esteem of students, both of which are crucial and influences learning.
- recognizes the need for students to be able to assess themselves and understand how to improve.
- builds on students’ prior knowledge and experience in designing what is taught.
- incorporates varied learning styles into deciding how and what to teach.
- encourages students to understand the criteria that will be used to judge their work.
- offers an opportunity to students to improve their work after feedback.
- helps students to support their peers, and expect to be supported by them.
Formative Assessment is thus carried out during a course of instruction to provide continuous feedback to both the teachers and the learners, to take decisions regarding appropr iate modifications in the transactional procedures and learning activities.
It involves students’ being an essential part of assessment. They must be involved in a range of activities right from designing criteria to self assessment or peer assessment.
Tools of Evaluation(For Formative Evaluation):
- Day to Day observation.
- Oral work(Question answer, loud reading, dailogues/conversation, roleplay, interview, group discussion, etc.).
- Practical / Experiments.
- Activity(Individual, Group, Self Study).
- Tests(Informal small duration written tests, open book, etc.).
- Home work/ Class work(Informative, descriptive, essay, report, story, letter, dailogue, expressing imagination, etc.).
- Others( Questionnaire, self evaluation, peer evaluation, group work and other similar tool).
Summative Assessment (SA):
Summative Assessment (SA) is carried out at the end of a course of learning. It measures or ‘sumsup’ how much a student has learned from the course. It is usually a graded test, i.e., it is marked according to a scale or set of grades.
Assessment that is predominantly of summative nature will not by itself be able to illustrate a valid measure of the growth and development of the child. It, at best, certifies the level of achievement only at a given point of time. The paper–pencil tests are basically a one-time mode of assessment; and to exclusively rely on it to decide about the development of a child is not only unfair but also unscientific. Overemphasis on examination marks focusing on only scholastic aspects makes children assume that assessment is different from learning, resulting in the ‘learn and forget’ syndrome. Besides encouraging unhealthy competition, the overemphasis on Summative Assessment system also produces enormous stress and anxiety among learners. It is this that has led to the emergence of the concept of Continuous and Comprehensive School-Based Evaluation.
Difference between Formative Assessment and Summative Assessment:
|Goal||The goal of Formative assessment is to improve||The goal of summative assessment is to prove.|
|Purpose||To enhance learning||To make judgments about student’s performance.|
|Occurs during instruction||Occurs after instruction.|
Occurs on a continuous basis|
|Occurs at a particular point of time to determine what students know.|
To improve learning allows teachers to make decisions and monitor|
their instructions based on student’s performance.
To predict and judge student’s performance, give grades and determine|
if the content being taught.
is Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)
and Benefits of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
and Summative Evalaution
Guidelines and Software
Framework of CCE