Formative Assessment (FA) and Summative Assessment (SA) in CCE, Formative Assessment (FA) is a tool used by the teacher to continuously monitor a student’s progress in a non–threatening, supportive environment.
It involves regular descriptive feedback, a chance for the student to reflect on the performance, take advice and improve upon it. If used effectively, it can improve student performance tremendously, while raising the self-esteem of the child and reducing the workload of the teacher.
For Summative Assessment, If CCE is implemented. There will be a Summative Assessment after every term. The test is for 100 marks. Out of these, 20% of marks are allotted to oral test and 80% of marks are allotted for written test. Under Oral test, 10% of marks are allotted to listening and speaking and re-maining 10% of marks allotted to the targeted oral discourses under creative expression. The performance of children should be taken over a period of time but not on assessment day.
As CCE is a school based assessment, every school should prepare their own question papers for summative assessment.
The Test Items for CCE or Other Pattern: The test items should be holistic and cover different genres. They should include the discourses like conversations, stories, paragraphs, narratives, letters, descriptions, reports, speeches, autobiographical accounts, notices, tables, charts, posters and adds. While preparing a question paper, take a different text for each question. Don’t use long narratives.
Don’t split a single narrative and use the same to frame questions under all Academic Standards. Give all questions belonging to one Academic Standard at one place. The texts chosen should be in the comprehensive level of the child’s knowledge domain. Sufficient inputs should be provided for the questions focussed on writing discourses so as to promote thinking and presenting the ideas in a desirable manner. The questions to be given under comprehension and creative expression should lead to the production of language. Note: Teachers should refer to their Handbooks for comprehensive information to prepare the summative question papers.
Salient features of Formative Assessment :
- diagnostic and remedial.
- makes the provision for effective feedback.
- provides the platform for the active involvement of students in their own learning.
- enables teachers to adjust teaching to take account of the results of assessment.
- recognizes the profound influence assessment has on the motivation and self-esteem of students, both of which are crucial and influences learning.
- recognizes the need for students to be able to assess themselves and understand how to improve.
- builds on students’ prior knowledge and experience in designing what is taught.
- incorporates varied learning styles into deciding how and what to teach.
- encourages students to understand the criteria that will be used to judge their work.
- offers an opportunity to students to improve their work after feedback.
- helps students to support their peers, and expect to be supported by them.
Formative Assessment is thus carried out during a course of instruction to provide continuous feedback to both the teachers and the learners, to take decisions regarding appropr iate modifications in the transactional procedures and learning activities. It involves students’ being an essential part of assessment. They must be involved in a range of activities right from designing criteria to self assessment or peer assessment.
Tools of Evaluation (For Formative Evaluation):
- Day to Day observation.
- Oral work(Question answer, loud reading, dailogues/conversation, roleplay, interview, group discussion, etc.).
- Practical / Experiments.
- Activity(Individual, Group, Self Study).
- Tests(Informal small duration written tests, open book, etc.).
- Home work/ Class work(Informative, descriptive, essay, report, story, letter, dailogue, expressing imagination, etc.).
- Others( Questionnaire, self evaluation, peer evaluation, group work and other similar tool).
Summative Assessment (SA): Summative Assessment (SA) is carried out at the end of a course of learning. It measures or ‘sumsup’ how much a student has learned from the course. It is usually a graded test, i.e., it is marked according to a scale or set of grades.
Assessment that is predominantly of summative nature will not by itself be able to illustrate a valid measure of the growth and development of the child. It, at best, certifies the level of achievement only at a given point of time. The paper–pencil tests are basically a one-time mode of assessment; and to exclusively rely on it to decide about the development of a child is not only unfair but also unscientific. Overemphasis on examination marks focusing on only scholastic aspects makes children assume that assessment is different from learning, resulting in the ‘learn and forget’ syndrome. Besides encouraging unhealthy competition, the overemphasis on Summative Assessment system also produces enormous stress and anxiety among learners. It is this that has led to the emergence of the concept of Continuous and Comprehensive School-Based Evaluation.
Difference between Formative Assessment and Summative Assessment:
|Goal||The goal of Formative assessment is to improve||The goal of summative assessment is to prove.|
|Purpose||To enhance learning||To make judgments about student’s performance.|
|Relation to Instruction||Occurs during instruction||Occurs after instruction.|
|Frequency||Occurs on a continuous basis (daily)||Occurs at a particular point of time to determine what students know.|
|Role||To improve learning allows teachers to make decisions and monitor their instructions based on student’s performance.||To predict and judge student’s performance, give grades and determine if the content being taught.|
|What is Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)||Get Details|
|Objectives and Benefits of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation||Get Details|
|Formative and Summative Evaluation||Get Details|
|CCE Guidelines and Software||Get Details|
|Conceptual Framework of CCE||Get Details|
Assessment and Evaluation: The focal point for school community building. Citizens are formed from school to society. The learning experiences imparted in the school help the children to determine their future. It is the duty of the school to prepare for life by identifying the personal skills hidden in the individual and improving them.
The teacher and the learner must be clear about what to learn, how to learn, and why to learn. Reading is like hunger is known as adults. Learning to eat rice only when hungry should be done through quest. Milk is the only proper food for the baby. It also means that the student should learn what he can learn at any age.
Student learning depends not only on the student’s ability but also on the content concentration, the teacher’s teaching skill and the teaching environment. We usually use the ‘written test’ as the most acceptable measure to measure what children have learned and how much they have learned in school. Winners are those who get marks in the thread conducted in the name of the test.
The rest of them …..? The teacher moves on, completing one lesson after another. A student who lags behind in understanding the first lesson will fall further behind in the second lesson. The distance between student and teacher increases as the number of lessons completed increases. This distance risks eventually turning him into a schoolboy.
The teacher must have a proper understanding of ‘evaluation’ in order to prevent this nuisance. Evaluation is not just a written test. The process of constantly reviewing and improving the way a student participates in the different learning experiences that the school provides, and the way in which the skills are acquired.
Evaluation is considered as a way of recognizing how one is thriving in the scenes he encounters and teaching him the necessary techniques. If initially practiced with personal attention based on evaluation results it can eventually be measured by team evaluation. It was suggested that the examinations be removed at the primary school level to assess the students’ participation in different learning scenes.
The five-point index should confirm what level the children are at through evaluation. Grades should be given instead of marks. In fact, the role of the teacher becomes crucial after the evaluation. The teacher is able to create flexible works by scientifically analyzing the factors that hinder the learning of definite concepts.
So these need to be evaluated through multiple scales to express what kind of perception the student has. Especially the evaluation conducted at the primary school level should be conducted through different measurements. Therefore, it is possible to identify the inner strengths of the student and put them in the right position.
- Use of time management
- Personal hygiene
- Books, pens, pencil handling
- Behavior with peers
- Eating habits
- Sharing in the playground
- Participation in creative activities
- Participation in learning scenes
- Adult behavior among teachers
- Participants in scenes management
- Language skills
- Views of parents and neighbors
- Positive thinking, behavior
- Perseverance efficiency.
- An examination of the above points will show that evaluation is not just a written test. Identify situations where help is needed.