NCSC Suggested Science Projects & Experiments on Sub Themes: Children’s Science Congress (CSC), National Children’s Science Congress Projects, Suggested experiments, Suggested Projects, Additional Project Ideas for NCSC, CSC Projects are Simple, Practical, Innovative and Inexpensive.
Understanding Weather and Climate:
Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at particular place and time; with respect to the variables like temperature, air pressure, wind, precipitation, etc. Climate is the regular pattern of weather conditions of a particular place; a region of Earth having particular meteorological condition. Weather changes from day to day or season to season and also change in a regular cycle during the year.
Climate is broadly a long term condition of weather patterns taken over a period of at least thirty years of a region. The geographical situation of any locality/area/region in relation to its latitudinal and longitudinal position, altitude, distribution of land and water, the relative location from water bodies, surface cover (viz. vegetation/snow/rocks, etc.) are some of the natural factors that influence the weather and climatic condition of that particular location. Likewise, weather and climate are among the factors that determine the nature, condition, and pattern of natural resources (e.g. water, soil, flora, and fauna).
NCSC FOCAL THEME: UNDERSTANDING WEATHER AND CLIMATE
NCSC: Focal Theme: Science, Technology and Innovation for SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
The Sub themes include:
- Natural Resource Management
- Food and Agriculture
- Health, Hygiene & Nutrition.
- Lifestyles and Livelihoods
- Disaster Management
- Traditional Knowledge Systems.
These are responsible for determining the forms of water, soil-forming processes and creating support systems for floral growth; which again determine the faunal composition. These natural resource bases along with weather and climate determine our way of life (viz. occupation, housing, food habits, dress style, transportation, etc.) to some extent.
In totality, weather and climate influence the base of the economy and culture of that area. Climate change is considered as one of the most important global environmental challenges being faced by humanity today, with its implication on natural ecosystem, food production systems, fresh water supply, health and weather related calamities.
India’s weather and climatic conditions are naturally controlled by her geographical location (i.e. its latitudinal and longitudinal extents) and the conditions along her boundaries. (Himalayan ranges from northwestern to northeastern corner in the northern side, existence of Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea as well as Bay of Bengal in southwest to southeast).
The country also encompasses the Western Ghats, which is one of the 34 Biodiversity hot-spots of the world; extending along the West coast of India from the Vindya, Satpura ranges in the North to the Southern tip of the peninsula to a stretch of 1,600 km, receiving an average of nearly 6000 mm of rainfall every year. NCSC Suggested Science Projects & Experiments
The latitudinal and longitudinal extension within the country has greater implication on variation of solar days or sunshine hours from east to west, which is one of the fundamental factors regulating weather and climatic variations in the country. Further, within the country, there are variations in distribution of land and water, altitudinal differences, vegetation type and coverage. All these together have given rise to different climatic zones and agro-climatic zones.
In this context, there is a need to have proper understanding of weather and climate and its changes, mainly oriented towards different aspects, factors, and attributes of weather and climate along with their implications on the natural ecosystem, on society and culture and on human health. Right through, there needs to be focus on climate change aspects, including mitigation and adaptation.
NCSC Suggested Science Projects & Experiments
I. UNDERSTANDING THE WEATHER AROUND YOU
The children should be able to understand the direct as well as indirect impacts of human activities on weather and climate. The impacts may be in the form of temperature change, change in humidity, changes in water availability, changes in energy level received from sun etc.
- To study and analyze urban heat islands in your locality.
- Studies on micro-climatic variations in different eco systems in your study area.
- Analysis of monsoon rainfall of past and present period for your locality.
- Studies in wave erosion consequences in beaches of your locality (for coastal regions).
- Setting of low cost weather station and analysis of data generated and comparison with weather station data for your area.
- Studies on wind speed and direction in various sites of your locality in relation to weather data.
- Establishment of micro-meteorological stations with local, low cost, available assets to observe and study the weather of a particular catchment area/locality and compare the data with secondary data from weather stations.
- Study of landslides – mapping vulnerable points, reasons thereof for, study of exotic and
indigenous plant species on landslides and correlating the various factors leading to landslides
- Study of cloud bursts in terms of intensity, impact and coping mechanisms in a select area.
- Study of cyclones and its impact – prevalence, frequency, and weather preceding and after the incidents.
- When do you find whirl wind? Study its frequency, intensity and impacts.
- Study of the impact of hail storms (as happened in 2014 in Maharashtra).
- Study of weather pattern and shifting monsoons and other phenomenon with consultations with elderly people and correlation with historical data as well as measurement current weather parameters.
- To study the variations of local weather conditions influenced by topographical features.
- Study of the relationship between different types of weather and precipitation.
- Analysis of rainfall trends (if possible probability of occurrence).
- Moisture availability in a locality in different seasons.
- Study on diurnal of temperature variation under different land-uses.
- Study of temperature variations in an aquatic system.
- Study on characteristics of land and sea breeze and its impact onerosion of sandin Coastal area.
- Comparative study on atmospheric, soil and water temperature in a locality.
II. IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON WEATHER AND CLIMATE: NCSC Suggested Science Projects & Experiments
- Studies on heat production by air condition systems in any study area and analyzing alternatives.
- Estimation of temperature in industrial / mining areas and its impact.
- Monitoring air and water pollution in your locality.
- Comparison of nature of houses (in terms of materials used, ventilation etc.) their design in terms of heat absorption and other weather parameters.
- Study the impact of developmental activities on the micro climate/weather of your locality and compare the data with nearby areas not affected by the developmental activity.
- Study the impact of vehicular pollution on micro climate at tourist destinations with reference to pre-tourist seasons, tourist season and post tourist season.
- To study the carrying capacity of micro water sheds / local entrepreneurs in assisting pilgrims/tourists on religious routes and study seasonal variations, damages to eco systems, pollution etc.
- Study the solid waste random disposal /landfill and its effect on nearby water resources and remedial measures.
- Study the change in land use and land cover in your areas and its impact on climatic conditions.
- Effect of coral and sand mining from sea shores and its changing impact with changing weather.
- Study the impact of over exploitation of sand mining on various environmental parameters like water table, temperature of water in water bodies, change in quality of water, (physical, chemical, biological parameters) and larger impact on cropping/agriculture, livelihoods.
- Impact of changing weather, climate on the mangrove forests, density, eco system as a whole.
- Impact of glass claddings in modern buildings – study of micro climate inside versus ordinary buildings.
- Impact of charcoal making (Prosopisjuliflora) on wild life.
- Study the impact of multi-storied buildings on the local wind velocity and sunlight intensity, temperature, humidity etc.
- Study on desertification and salinization of land/soil.
- Comparative study on soil health in jhum cultivated and normal land.
III. WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ECO SYSTEMS: NCSC Suggested Science Projects & Experiments
- Studies on micro arthropods /flora and fauna profiles and its seasonal variations in your study area.
- Animal behavior as weather indicators – Collection of traditional experience and scientific validation.
- Study of the growth rate of invasive (example Parthenium) species and its seasonal variations in your area and studying their adaptation capacities for adverse weather conditions in comparison to major crops.
- Study of group migration of animals/birds/fish/plants and correlating the same with observed weather change / extreme weather events.
- Study of Pond/Lake eco systems – temperature, water levels with reference to rain fall, study of life forms during various seasons (fish, frog, fresh water snakes, birds, aquatic plants, quality of water across seasons / varying temperatures / varying turbidity, etc.
- Study of sacred groves – seasonal variations of life forms biomass, micro climate studies, interrelationships within the eco system, etc.
- Study of coastal eco systems – Change of tides, High Tide Line, Low tide line over the years and its impact on coastal eco system, life forms, habitats etc.(Can be carried out as a combination of measuring tides – measured over two to three months – and also oral interviews with elderly fishermen in the area)
- Study the impact of temperature variation on floral diversity and behavior of plants in an area.
- Study of phonological changes in a rich biodiversity area with respect to changing weather/season.
- To study the role of lichens with respect to climate change/weather and biodiversity in a select area.
- Study of flora and fauna of a wetland in your locality and study seasonal changes if possible.
- Study of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in terms of physical, chemical and biological parameters with respect to seasonal changes.
- Study of shells and shell fragments from sea beaches and study seasonal variations in their diversity.
- Study of fish catch in a coastal area and study the seasonal variations, quantum of catch and economic implications with respect to changing weather, seasons. (also oral interviews with elderly fishermen in the area).
- Study of corals in terms of bleaching etc. with respect to changing weather, seasons.
- Study of primary productivity in a pond ecosystem.
- Study of carbon sequestration in pond/lake eco systems by studying bottom sediments.
- Study of carbon sequestration in forest/grasslandsoil.
- Study/measurement of canopy cover in different seasons of a forest (alternatively dense vegetation, sacred groves, large trees, school campus, parks etc.)
- Study of a tree as an eco system more specifically a habitat – seasonal changes and changing diversity in niche specialization .
- Study of sediment transport in a drainage channel/catchment by stakes-high measurement over seasons. (Eutrophication).
- Impact of climatic variations of agro-forestry in an area.
- Impact of rainfall variability on production of crops of an area.
- Study of insect diversity of a grassland eco system (alternatively in wet land / dry land etc.).
- Estimation of biomass in a grass species over the seasons.
- Study of cow dung droppings and its disintegration as an indicator of soil microbial health.
- Estimation of micro fauna of a desert eco system.
- Study of bird migration due to weather / climate shift.
- Study of changing housing patterns on sparrow population in a city.
- Study of wetlands reclamation and its impact on micro climates, birds and other life forms – seasonal studies.
- Study the impact of salty rains on the loss of grasslands in Banni region in Gujarat,-impact of weather and climate.
- Study the impact of changing weather and climate on the eastern Himalayan glaciers.
- Study of local streams and seasonal variations and its impact on local agricultural practices. (Flow rates can be studied as small experiments )
- Study on impact analysis of deforestation on soil and nutrient loss due to heavy rainfall and runoff in a simulated situation.
- Study on earthworm, wasp, ant and other insects under changing environment due to change in climate and weather.
- Litter disintegration studies in monocrop and multicrop soils.
- Impact of agricultural practices on soil faunal density and diversity.
- Soil faunal migrations in water logged paddy fields…. (premonsson – monsoon – post monsoon).
- Crustacean larvae in estuaries…. (premonsson – monsoon – post monsoon).
- Human adaptation in various ecosystems to food and livelihood…
IV. WEATHER, CLIMATE, SOCIETY AND CULTURE: NCSC Suggested Science Projects & Experiments
- Studies on traditional knowledge and weather forecasting in your study area.
- Scientific analysis of festivals in terms of weather in your locality and neighbourhood and comparison.
- Study of seasonal food practices and its availability in terms of weather in your locality.
- Study of weather related folklore and proverbs of your state/area.
- Analysis of school attendance in relation to weather / weather extremes and correlating to socieconomic background of absentees in the last 5 years.
- Study of various types of firewood used and amount of soot production (studies related to quantification of the same) in your area.
- Study of folk taxonomy and traditional knowledge of a particular area and linking them to traditional medicine / cultural values, practices etc.
- Study of climate change/weather extremes and adaptation practices of the people and their culture in high altitude areas.
- Study the merit of traditional houses in terms of weather parameters.
- Effect of cultural / religious activities/functions on eco system in your locality.
- Comparison of fishing activities, food, transportation during monsoon and other seasons in Lakshadweep region.
- Traditional methods of predicting rains like movement of ants, height of crow’s nest from ground.
- Comparison of crop calendars of present and past and study the impacts on food habits and culture.
- Identification, documentation, and validation of indicator plants related to soil moisture status, ground water availability, etc.
- Study on indigenous methods of rainwater harvesting.
V. WEATHER, CLIMATE, AND AGRICULTURE: NCSC Suggested Science Projects & Experiments
- Using sun’s heat to dehydrate vegetables to prolong their shelf life and get a better price.
- Study on the effect of different sowing dates on the growth, flowering and yield of paddy (or of any other crop)
- Impact of pollution on plant and soilhealth.
- Study of climate, weather versus vegetation changes in an area.
- Organic versus in-organic agriculture – Comparative Studies related to performance in adverse weather and climatic conditions.
- Study of traditional water harvesting and irrigation techniques and their relevance in changing weather and climatic conditions.
- Impact of micro climate on various parameters of a crop including yield, total biomass production etc.
- Effect of late monsoon on cropping pattern in your locality.
- Change in irrigation pattern due to change in climatic conditions.
- Impact of rainfall and temperature on horticulture and agricultural crops with special reference
to Apple scab disease.
- Analysis of parameters of weather conditions on controlled and open agriculture.
- Measuring the water holding capacities of terraces in hills/micro water sheds and relating this
to growth of vegetation/crops on different terraces.
- Study the effect of strong winds on banana plantations, and the reducing the impact (quantification of reduction) by tying leaves of banana plants in the Narmada belt in Central Guarat.
- Study the effect of “rab” method – burning dried leaves, twigs, bark, cowdung cakes soil layer etc which is a practice of soil preparation during March throughout Konkan area of Maharashtra before sowing rice.
- Study effect of changing weather on flowering pattern and fruit production in Alphonso mango which is a cash crop in Konkan region of Maharashtra.
- Study the performance of different varieties of different crops which are adapted to extreme weather conditions like drought or water logging, increased temperature etc.
- Comparative study of mixed cropping systems with that of mono culture in terms of total yield, total biomass yield, soil fertility etc. before and after cropping.
- Study of mixed grains agriculture in Kutch region of Gujarat (Mixed grains are Isabgol, Jeera, Til, Jowar, Moong and Bajra which are sowed together. As the weather changes, different crops grow at different times depending on the gestation period of them. Effect of weather and climate on yield can be studied. This kind of method is called “sukhikheti” which does not need irrigation and tilling carried out by camels).
- To measure impact of sunlight on the growth of crops in different types of soil.
- Study the impact of changing weather and climatic conditions on Makhana/Sugarcane cultivation in North Bihar and UP.
- Study of traditional agricultural practices of past and present practices in terms of changing weather.
- Analysis of seasonal /perennial crops production in various weather conditions.
- Analysis of milk density in different weather conditions in your locality.
- Assessment of food habits of traditional people in view of possible supplement to food security
- Study of the impacts of weather and climate change on traditional agricultural practices.
- Study of salt farms in coastal areas of Kutch in different seasons.
- Study ofsoil moisture retention and comparing them undermulching, drip irrigation etc.
- Study of cropping pattern of a particular region as influenced by different seasons in the year (why a particular crop is grown in a particular season only?), effect of weather parameters on various crop stages.
- Study of performance of hybrid livestock versus traditional livestock in terms of input costs versus output.
- Study of effect of heavy rainfall on different crop stages and its effect on production.
- Study of the effect of dry spells on different crop stages and ultimate effect on production.
- Study of soil parameters (physical, chemical and biological) in changing weather extremes and
its correlation with plant production, crop yields etc.
- Study of seasonal milk production of various breeds of livestock in the same region – inputs costs versus milk output.
- Study of different agricultural practices in relation to weather and climate (tillage, land preparation, sowing, transplanting, weeding, harvesting and post harvest in relation to local calendar systems.
- Study of recommended practices (Agricultural University, KVK etc.) like ideal dates of sowing, distance of planting, pest/disease calendar etc. and documenting actual practices in field and their rationale with reference to changing weather/climate.
- Effect of changing weather and climate on crop diseases, pest occurrence, emergence of old diseases/pests, whether minor pests emerging as major pests etc.
- Study of different weeds with reference to changing weather on occurrence, growth, flowering and reproduction (overall life cycle)
- Studies on effect of weather and climate on different crops/grain storage techniques/practices.
- Study of modern agricultural practices which contribute for increasing levels of GHGs – eg. Deep ploughing, using high inputs like chemical fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides, farm machinery etc.
- Study of innovative crop practices adapting to changing weather, climate and identifying components which are critical for improved performance in adverse weather and climatic conditions.
- Study of sericulture in changing weather/climatic conditions.
- Study of changing weather and climatic conditions on floriculture.
- Comparative study of System of rice intensification (SRI) of paddy cultivation with conventional paddy cultivation with respect to less water intensive method.
- Study of impact of weather and climate change in the traditional paddy cum fish culture in the Zino valley of Arunachal Pradesh.
- Study of Jhum cultivation and its impacts on change of weather and climate of your locality.
- Study of the practice of burning the stock of sugar cane on the next crop in Tamilnadu.
- Study the impact of biochar on crop growth and soil parameters.
- Study of short term vegetable cultivation versus long term crops as a strategy to cope with changing weather/ climate. (green vegetable cultivation).
- Residual moisture based farming – Suitability for post monsoon crop.
- Analysis of yield and quality of spices due to weather/climate change in hilly regions with special relevance to onset of South west monsoon.
- Comparison of seasonal crop calendars and their variation within an agro-climatic zone – regional variations and differences and their rationale.
- Comparative study on crop performance through hydroponics and normal crop production system.
- Study on yield advantage of mono cropping and mixed cropping
- Harvesting of rain water and its re-use
VI. WEATHER, CLIMATE, AND HEALTH: NCSC Suggested Science Projects & Experiments
- Study of weather related diseases in your locality – incidence, spread, treatment, expenditure, loss of livelihoods and correlation to socio-economic conditions of those affected.
- Mapping of tropical diseases in terms of weather and finding out the vulnerability in terms of geography (landscape), social, economic and cultural factors of those who are more prone to the diseases.
- Hospital based studies related to weather and climate and correlating with field level studies.
- Analysis of agricultural / horticultural/ ornamental/cash crops in terms of weather extremes/climate change.
- Mapping of vector borne diseases in your locality with special reference to re-emergence of certain diseases, mapping more vulnerable areas and linking them to health, sanitation etc.
- Study the emerging diseases in higher Himalayan regions and correlate the same to temperature, rainfall and other weather parameters, climate change.
- Participatory Village level mapping of your locality with reference to landscape, natural resources, health and sanitation facilities, vulnerable localities for epidemics and making a people plan for interventional strategies with pre and post intervention impact studies.
- Study / documentation of working policy planning of various line departments with respect to onset of monsoon, weather extremes, disease incidence and strategies for coping with epidemics and finding out the efficacy of such plans and suggesting changes/modifications in a scientific manner.
- Study of pattern of common diseases in the general population in relation to changing local weather conditions including seasonality, frequency etc.
- Study of various skin diseases in the last three years in your locality related to changing weather, climate etc.
- Study the quality of air in various environs – crowded, slums, textile industries, fly ash handling areas, bricks and cement industry etc. and study the seasonal variations.
- Study the impact of weather and climate on food, fruits, vegetables, fish etc. and their durability during various seasons/weather.
- To study the impact of changing weather / climate on industrial areas (thermal plants, stone crushing industry, textile, steel, glass industries etc.) on health and livelihood losses.
- To study the impact of humid weather on skin related diseases/infections.
- Prevalence of nature of disease in domestic animals as an effect of weather and climate.