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Contribution of Scientists to progress of Science:
There is a lot of difference between the stone age man of yesterday and today’s man of atomic age. We have many kinds of implementations and machines available now and we desire to get still more modernized implements. In this slide,Noble Prize Winner-Indian Scientist-C. VENKATA RAMAN image has been added. Scientists alone are responsible for our comfortable life.
DARK AGE (Before 500 B.C.):
There were scientists in our country and in Greece before 500 B.C., but the principles and facts told and put forth by them were not believed because of the superstitions and ignorance of the people. That’s why that period is known as the “DARK AGE”. From 16th century, scientists came forward boldly and faced those superstitions.
Life to the scientific knowledge:
Continuous observation, Research and devotion, Extensive work, Resourcefulness and their process of formulating facts gave life to the scientific knowledge. As a result they discovered many new items. Here,Wrought-Iron Pillar of New Delhi image has been added. Ancient India was an early leader in metallurgy.
JOHN GUTENBERG(1397 to 1468) German Scientist:
John Gutenberg realized the necessity of the implement to convey the principles, experiments and inventions or discoveries to the future generation. The printing machine is the reflection of his thoughts. Recording the scientific knowledge has become very easy with that machine. John Gutenberg-style Printing Press from 1568. Such presses could make 240 prints per hour. Gutenberg Monument in Germany image provided in this slide.
Zaccharias Johnson (1580-1638):
Dutch Scientist There are many organisms which are not visible to our naked eye. Some of those organisms cause diseases. To find such organisms Zaccharias Johnson discovered the Microscope in 1590.
ANTONIE VAN LEEUWEN HOEK (1632 -1723):
Netherlands Scientist Replica of Microscope by Antonie Van Leeuwen Hoek. In 1653 Antonie Van Leeuwen hoek discovered the living organisms which are invisible to our naked eye, those are the unicellular organisms of Phylum Protozoa. This enabled the scientists to discover the diseases caused by those organisms and also the preventive measures of remedies. In this slide, A species of Protozoa identified by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s image added.
ROBERT KOCH (1843-1910):
German Scientist, In the 19th century Robert Koch formulated the symptoms and preventive measures of Tuberculosis and Cholera by studying the nature of the disease causing micro organisms. German Postage Stamp on Robert Koch. (Released in 2005). Robert Koch Monument in Berlin, Robert Koch’s fight against Malaria: East – German Commemorative Coin (1968) on Robert Koch, According to Koch’s instructions, all the ponds and swamps where Malaria carrying Mosquitoes hatched were reclaimed and patients were treated with Quinine. Malaria was thus iradicated by 1902 and Kupelwieser erected a monument to Koch, which still stands in Vicinity of the 15th century Church of St. German on Veliki Brijun Island. Monument to Robert Koch and the fight against Malaria at Veliki Brijun Island – istria country in Adriatic Sea. An Electron Microscope that can magnify living cells, micro–organisms – parts of the cells 10 thousand times is available. There is also scope for taking photographs of Microscope organism and its parts also
Electron Microscope(1973), An image of ant in a scanning Electron Microscope. Electron Microscope(1933), An insect coated in gold for viewing with a scanning Electron Microscope
French Scientist Louis Pasteur was surprised to see the crude and dangerous method of treatment for dog-bite. He thought that it was not correct and he conducted his experiments on dog bite . In 1885 he discovered a medicine for “Rabis” – dog bite in scientific method. He conducted his work in Bacteriology. Inventor of Pasteurization Method. Pasteurization Plant Pasteur’s works in Bacteriology Louis Pasteur discovered the process of Pasteurization to destroy Bacteria. He proved that fermentation of grape juice is caused by micro – organisms. He also proposed that micro organisms are the cause for contagious diseases through Microbe – theory.
William Harvey (15781657):
British Scientist, Postage Stamp on William Harvey by Soviet Union (1957) William Harvey proved by his experiments that blood circulation is necessary for the functioning of heart. But he could not demonstrate how blood is collected in the heart.
Marcello Malpighi (1638 – 1694):
Italian Scientist, Described about systematic circulation of blood being pumped by the body to the heart. Malpighi Tomb in Italy
In our country Dhanvantari, Sushruta, Charaka etc., were regarded as Doctors, Scientists. Dhanvantari Sushruta Charaka: Dhanvantari, An idol of Dhanvantari at an Ayurveda Expo in Bangalore Dhanvantari is an Avatar of Vishnu from the Hindu tradition. He appears in the vedas and Puranas as the physician of the Gods and the God of Ayurvedic Medicine.
Sushruta (800 B.C.) – Father of Surgery Statue of Sushruta in Haridwar Sushrutha is the author of the book “Sushrutha Samhita”. In which he describes over 300 surgical procedures and 120 surgical instruments and classifies human surgery in eight categories. Because of his seminal and numerous contributions to the science and art of surgery he is also known by the title “Father of Surgery”.
Charaka: Monument in Patanjali Yogpeeth Campus Haridwar Charaka (300 B.C.) Charaka is author of “Charaka Samhita”. It is a document which contains information about seasons, diet, thinking, therapies and various other guidelines for getting good health for everyone.
Acharya Nagarjuna (100 A.D.): Acharya Nagarjuna was the first Indian who produced chemical, metallurgical inventions and discoveries. Nagarjuna proposed the “Theory of Rasa Vada”.
Arya Bhat (476-550 A.D.): Statue of Arya bhat on the grounds of IUCAA (Pune) Aryabhat formulated “Austronomical Facts”.
JAGADEESH CHANDRA BOSE (1858 – 1937 ): Jagadeesh Chandra Bose in Royal Institution (London), Jagadeesh Chandra Bose conducted several experiments on plants and discovered that plants have life. GROWTH RATE OF PLANTS CRESCO GRAPH . He said that they exhibit feelins. He discovered “Cresco Graph” to find out the growth of plants
Chandra Shekhara Venkata Raman (1888 – 1970): C.V. Raman conducted experiments on light. Raman Energy Levels, Energy Level Diagram showing the States involved in Raman Signal, C.V. Raman published the principles of “Raman Effect” which explained the “Light Emission” and for it he awarded the Noble Prize. Indian Postage Stamp released on C.V. Raman in 1971
Acharya Prapulla Chandra Roy (1861 – 1944 ): P.C. Roy conducted experiments on Nitrates. An Exhibition on P.C. Roy was held at the Science City, Kolkatta on his 150th Birth Anniversary (2nd August, 2011)
MEGHANATH SAHA (1893 – 1956 ): Meghanath Saha formulated the theory of “Heat Emission” (Thermionic emission). Thermionic Emission.
Dr. MANKOMBU SAMBASIVAN SWAMINATHAN (Born on August 7th 1925), Today many countries are facing shortage of food. There is no sufficient production of food for the population. Dr. M.S. Swaminathan developed different high yielding new varieties of crop plants (Hybrids) and his effort was admired by many nations in the world. M.S. Swaminathan is well known as “FATHER OF GREEN REVOLUTION IN INDIA”. He worked as President of International Rice Research Institute. There he worked for agricultural production in Manila. Now He is the Founder and Chairman of the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation. D.N.A. (De Oxy Ribonucleic Acid) image added.
Revision: Man observed many things in nature in the stone age itself. Some people conducted experiments, declared results (inferences) for which superstitions stud as obstacles. It took sometime to overcome them. People came to a decision that Scientific discoveries could solve their problems. Scientists followed an analytical way for finding the facts. They analysed the results of their experiments before formulating difficult theories. Their discoveries have made our lives comfortable.